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Table 2 Distribution of unhealthy lifestyle behaviorsa comparing intervention versus non-intervention municipalities, all participants and restricted to participants obtaining motivational counselling in intervention municipalities, additionally stratified by presence/absence of at least one self-reported doctor’s diagnosis (diabetes, hypertension, CVD) overall and by presence/absence of at least one self-reported doctor’s diagnosis (diabetes, hypertension, CVD)

From: Non-communicable disease prevention in Kosovo: quantitative and qualitative assessment of uptake and barriers of an intervention for healthier lifestyles in primary healthcare

All participants
  5 Intervention Municipalities
All Participants
n = 364
7 Non-intervention Municipalities
n = 543
  5 Intervention Municipalities
Participants who received ≥ 1 motivational counselling
n = 80
7 Non-intervention Municipalities
n = 543
 
Prevalence
n (%)
Prevalence
n (%)
p-valueb Prevalence
n (%)
Prevalence
n (%)
p-valueb
Currently smoking 68 (18.7) 119 (21.9) 0.24 10 (12.5) 119 (21.9) 0.05
Physically inactive (≤ 150 min moderate or ≤ 75 min of vigorous or combination of two) 235 (64.6) 243 (44.8) < 0.001 69 (86.2) 243 (44.8) < 0.001
Unhealthy eaters (≤ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day) 342 (94.0) 512 (94.3) 0.83 74 (92.5) 512 (94.3) 0.53
Alcohol consumer (consumed alcohol at least one day during the past 30 days) 16 (4.4) 21 (3.9) 0.69 3 (3.8) 21 (3.9) 0.96
Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 190 (52.2) 296 (54.5) 0.49 49 (61.3) 296 (54.5) 0.26
Participants with at least one self-reported diagnosisc
  5 Intervention Municipalities
All Participants
n = 311
7 Non-intervention Municipalities
n = 456
  5 Intervention Municipalities
Participants who received ≥ 1 motivational counselling
n = 79
7 Non-intervention Municipalities
n = 456
 
Prevalence
n (%)
Prevalence
n (%)
p-valueb Prevalence
n (%)
Prevalence
n (%)
p-valueb
Currently smoking 54 (17.3) 96 (21.0) 0.20 9 (11.3) 96 (21.0) 0.04
Physically inactive (≤ 150 min moderate or ≤ 75 min of vigorous or combination of two) 204 (65.5) 205 (44.9) < 0.001 68 (86.0) 205 (44.9) < 0.001
Unhealthy eaters (≤ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day) 292 (93.8) 434 (95.1) 0.44 73 (92.4) 434 (95.1) 0.31
Alcohol consumer (consumed alcohol at least one day during the past 30 days) 13 (4.1) 16 (3.5) 0.63 3 (3.8) 16 (3.5) 0.90
Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 165 (53.0) 258 (56.5) 0.34 49 (62.0) 258 (56.5) 0.37
Participants without any self-reported diagnosisc
  5 Intervention Municipalities
All Participants
n = 53
7 Non-intervention Municipalities
n = 87
  5 Intervention Municipalities
Participants who received ≥ 1 motivational counselling
n = 1
7 Non-intervention Municipalities
n = 87
 
Prevalence Prevalence p-valueb Prevalence Prevalence p-valued
Currently smoking 14 (26.4) 23 (26.4) 0.99 1 (100.0) 23 (26.4) 0.27
Physically inactive (≤ 150 min moderate or ≤ 75 min of vigorous or combination of two) 31 (58.4) 38 (43.6) 0.09 1 (100.0) 38 (43.6) 0.44
Unhealthy eaters (≤ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day) 50 (94.3) 78 (89.6) 0.34 1 (100.0) 78 (89.6) 1.0
Alcohol consumer (consumed alcohol at least one day during the past 30 days) 3 (5.6) 5 (5.7) 0.98 1 (100.0) 5 (5.7) 0.07
Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 25 (47.1) 38 (43.6) 0.69 1 (100.0) 38 (43.6) 0.44
  1. aUnhealthy lifestyle behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy eaters, alcohol consumption): Follow-up 1 data; obesity only available at baseline
  2. bChi-squared test
  3. cSelf-reported doctor’s diagnosis at either Baseline or Follow-up 1
  4. dFisher’s exact test