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Table 4 Studies comparing remote home monitoring (smartphones, apps, and tablets) to no remote home monitoring

From: Effectiveness of remote home monitoring for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): systematic review

Studies comparing RHM (smartphones, apps, tablets) to no RHM
Outcomes № of participants
(studies)
Certainty of the evidence
(GRADE)
Relative effect*
(95% CI)
Anticipated absolute effects
Risk with no RHM Risk difference with RHM (smartphones, apps, tablets)
COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores at the end of monitoring period 312
(1 RCT)

LOW a,b
not pooled not pooled not pooled
Patient experience- Overall satisfaction at the end of monitoring period 73
(2 RCTs)

VERY LOW a,b,c
not pooled not pooled not pooled
Average number of exacerbations 87
(1 RCT)

LOW a,b
not pooled not pooled not pooled
Average number of ER visits due to COPD 29
(1 RCT)

LOW a,b
not pooled not pooled not pooled
Average number of hospital admissions due to COPD 116
(2 RCTs)

LOW a,b
not pooled not pooled not pooled
Adherence as the proportion of participants who completed the study 506
(5 RCTs)

LOW a,d
not pooled not pooled not pooled
  1. *The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI)
  2. CI Confidence interval, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ER Emergency room, RCT Randomized clinical trial, RHM Remote home monitoring
  3. a Study(ies) at high risk of bias
  4. b Small sample size
  5. c Differences in point estimates
  6. d The outcome is an indirect measure of compliance with intervention