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Table 3 Characteristics of strategies to promote or support the implementation of person-centred care approaches

From: How to implement person-centred care and support for dementia in outpatient and home/community settings: Scoping review

Study Goal (Research Design) Intervention Design
Content Format Delivery Timing Personnel/Participants
Berglund
2019 [53]
Evaluate an educational program aimed at healthcare workers on how to provide person-centred home care
(Qualitative – focus groups with 42 healthcare workers)
Session 1 - Dementia disease, associated disabilities, how to deal with problematic situations when delivering home care
Session 2 - Psychiatric nursing, building a relationship, using conversation, adding emotions
Session 3 - Models of care to support self-identity
Session 4 - PCC: how to tailor and provide individualized care
Didactic and interactive with presentations, case studies and group discussions In-person Delivered over 4 to 6 months
4 sessions ranging from 30 min to 4 h
2 nurse experts in dementia care
Care assistants, home care officers, registered nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and care managers
Ihara
2019 [33]
Evaluate the impact of a person-centred day care music listening intervention on mood, agitation, and social engagement for persons with dementia
(Before-after cohort study of 31 persons compared with control group of 20 persons)
Personalized music playlist was developed by asking caregivers about the person’s favorite music or by playing different songs to gauge person’s reaction. Persons could listen to the same songs repeatedly or choose to listen to a variety of songs. Researchers shuffled the order of songs in each session Person given headphones and iPod to listen to the personalized music playlist in a room with 7–10 others and closed door to minimize distractions In-person Single 1-h session: 20 min observation, 20 min music, 20 min post-observation 3 researchers, 5 graduate and undergraduate students
Hung
2019 [34]
Evaluate an educational program aimed at healthcare workers on how to provide person-centred outpatient dementia care
(Multiple methods – survey, focus groups with 310 interdisciplinary healthcare workers)
Module 1 – PCC principles
Module 2 - Common brain changes
Module 3 – Communication and interpersonal strategies
Module 4 – Self-protective skills and techniques
Didactic, small group learning exercises, story sharing, video vignettes, group reflections, and role-play In-person Single 1-day workshop, 12 people per workshop Educators (number and characteristics not reported)
Wang
2017 [39]
Evaluate the impact of a train-the-trainer education a program for primary care professionals on dementia knowledge and attitudes, and person-centred outpatient care delivery
(randomized controlled trial of 170 physicians and nurses + focus groups with 30 non-specified healthcare workers)
Enhancing early diagnosis of and responding to dementia in primary care, translating knowledge into practice Modules included pre-reading, short lecture and interactive case study discussion; learning resources included a workbook and 4 DVD’s. Project team (lead nurse + 9 physicians and nurses) provided ongoing support for trainers through email, telephone and site visits In-person Trainer sessions:
3-day workshop of 20 h total comprised of 10 modules
Delivery to peers:
Weekly in-service education (number of weeks, hours not specified). Learners also completed self-study of required readings.
Trainers were 1 nurse and 1 physician from each intervention site
Han
2016 [41]
Explore how a social visit program offers person-centred support to persons with dementia and carers
(qualitative – interviews with 5 carers)
Medical students were exposed to lectures on dementia fundamentals and communication skills for interacting with aging and cognitively impaired adults.
They also took part in lunch meetings to share experiences with each other and program staff
Students engaged persons with dementia (and sometimes carers) in social or cultural activity such as dinner or visiting a museum
Students received didactic (3-h lecture, monthly lunch-time speaker series), interactive (discussion with peers and program staff) and experiential training (reflection on learning)
Students were paired with individuals based on shared interests and geographic proximity
In-person Monthly meeting for minimum of four hours First-year medical students received training in interaction with persons with dementia; persons with dementia were involved in social activity by medical students
Gaugler 2015 [42] Evaluate the impact of an online educational program on carer knowledge of person-centred approaches to use in the home
(Before-after cohort – survey of 41 carers)
3 modules:
1/ understanding memory loss
Defines cognitive decline and explores impact on performance of activities of daily living
2/ living with dementia
Strategies to help individuals with dementia function independently and safely and identifies tools for family caregiver stress management
3/approaches to manage behavioural problems
Videos offer vignettes and interviews with persons with dementia, family carers, professionals and national experts Online Three 1-h modules:
1/ 7 screens, 17 videos
2/ 18 screens, 4 videos
3/ 11 screens, 18 videos
Modules put together by a 14-person national expert panel comprising clinical and scientific experts in family caregiving
Edwards
2015 [43]
Evaluate the impact of an educational intervention to promote person-centred outpatient primary care for persons with cognitive decline
(Before-after cohort – survey of 94 physicians, nurses and clerical staff)
Factual information and extracts from interviews with patients and carers to depict person-centred approaches to dementia and case examples; Introduction to dementia and the subtypes plus a case for early diagnosis; introduction to the concept of person-centred approaches to dementia based on extracts from interviews with people with dementia and their caregivers which cover: living with dementia; stigma and
attitudes; early diagnosis; and seeking a diagnosis, along with seven case examples of people with cognitive decline presenting for consultation in primary care; the final section summarized the earlier sections and also included information on making referrals to memory services
Didactic and interactive; package included PowerPoint presentation, handbook of slides, 4 case examples for group discussion, training manual with detailed guidelines for delivery In-person Single 1-h session over a lunch time meeting Developed by a service
user, carer, researcher, consultant psychiatrist, academic GP and a consultant
clinical psychologist, all with experience and interest in dementia. Delivered by one of the researchers
Robinson 2010 [49] Evaluate the impact of an educational intervention to promote person-centred outpatient care by old age psychiatrists
(Survey of 40 psychiatrists)
Theoretical aspects of person-centered care, facilitators and barriers, communication skills and approaches, all aimed to develop a therapeutic alliance, facilitated shared responsibility, promote patient autonomy, exploring patient experience and promoting quality of life Didactic presentation, full group discussion, small group role-playing and self-reflection; 24 video clips showing demonstrating skills and approaches, and how to structure consultations In-person Single session of half day in length 2 or 3 of the study authors facilitated each workshop