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Table 1 Associations between demographic and health variables, and stroke and cognitive status

From: The impact of stroke, cognitive function and post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) on healthcare utilisation in Ireland: a cross-sectional nationally representative study

  No stroke Stroke  
NCI
(n = 4020; 68.6%)
CI
(n = 1747; 29.8%)
NCI
(n = 42; 0.7%)
CI
(n = 50; 0.9%)
Test statistic
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) F P value
Montreal Cognitive Assessment Score (MoCA) (n = 5859) 26.7 (1.81)*
n = 4020 (68.6%)
20.2 (3.10)*
n = 1747 (29.8%)
25.9 (1.61)*
n = 42 (0.7%)
18.6 (4.53)*
n = 50 (0.9%)
3303.95  < 0.001
Age* (n = 5849) 61.3 (8.09)*
n = 4015 (68.7%)
66.3 (9.38)*
n = 1742 (29.8%)
67.3 (7.05)*
n = 42 (0.7%)
71.0 (8.93)*
n = 50 (0.8%)
158.51  < 0.001
  n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Cramer’s V P value
Sex
 Male 1832 (45.6) 807 (46.2) 22 (52.4) 28 (56.0) 0.023 0.392
 Female 2188 (54.4) 940 (53.8) 20 (47.6) 22 (44.0)   
Education
 None/primary school 674 (16.8)* 812 (46.5)* 12 (28.5) 25 (50.0)* 0.244  < 0.001
 Secondary/high school 1696 (42.2) 678 (38.9) 17 (40.5) 20 (40.0)   
 Third level/university 1650 (41.0) 255 (14.6) 13 (31.0) 5 (10.0)   
Marital status       
 Not married 973 (24.2)* 617 (35.3)* 11 (26.2) 22 (44.0)* 0.118  < 0.001
 Married 3047 (75.8) 1130 (64.7) 31 (73.8) 28 (56.0)   
Living situation       
 Living alone 700 (17.4)* 446 (25.5)* 8 (19.0) 17 (34.0)* 0.098  < 0.001
 Living with others 3320 (82.6) 1301 (74.5) 34 (81.0) 33 (66.0)   
Geographical location       
 Urban (town/city) 2263 (56.3)* 809 (46.4)* 27 (64.3) 28 (56.0) 0.093  < 0.001
 Rural 1754 (43.7) 936 (53.6) 15 (35.7) 22 (44.0)   
Employment status       
 Unemployed 2258 (56.2)* 1298 (74.3)* 35 (83.3)* 45 (90.0)* 0.182  < 0.001
 Employed 1762 (43.8) 449 (25.7) 7 (16.7) 5 (10.0)   
Medical card       
 No 2602 (64.8)* 625 (35.8)* 13 (30.9)* 4 (8.0)* 0.284  < 0.001
 Yes 1414 (35.2) 1122 (64.2) 29 (69.1) 46 (92.0)   
Private insurance       
 No 1207 (30.0)* 893 (51.2)* 14 (33.3) 32 (64.0)* 0.207  < 0.001
 Yes 2810 (70.0) 853 (48.8) 28 (66.7) 18 (36.0)   
Disability status       
 No disability 3.686 (91.7)* 1440 (82.4)* 29 (69.1)* 29 (58.0)* 0.168  < 0.001
 Disability 334 (8.3) 307 (17.6) 13 (30.9) 21 (42.0)   
Body Mass Index (BMI)       
 Normal weight 951 (23.7)* 366 (21.1)* 10 (23.8) 7 (14.6) 0.034 0.081
 Overweight/obese 3060 (76.3) 1372 (78.9) 32 (76.2) 41 (85.4)   
Smoking status       
 Non-smoker/ex-smoker 3426 (85.2)* 1419 (81.2)* 37 (88.1) 41 (82.0) 0.051 0.002
 Current smoker 594 (14.8) 328 (18.8) 5 (11.9) 9 (18.0)   
Physical activity level       
 Low 1077 (27.0)* 630 (36.3)* 17 (40.5) 28 (56.0)* 0.108  < 0.001
 Moderate/High 2908 (73.0) 1103 (63.7) 25 (59.5) 22 (44.0)   
CVD conditions       
 No CVD conditions 1520 (37.8)* 566 (32.4)* 2 (4.8)* 11 (22.0)* 0.080  < 0.001
 At least one CVD condition 2500 (62.2) 1181 (67.6) 40 (95.2) 39 (78.0)   
Medications       
 No Polypharmacy 3493 (87.3)* 1262 (73.0)* 18 (42.9)* 25 (50.0)* 0.208  < 0.001
 Polypharmacy (5 + medications) 509 (12.7) 466 (27.0) 24 (57.1) 25 (50.0)   
Depression       
 None/mild 3670 (92.6)* 1509 (87.5)* 33 (84.6) 40 (83.3)* 0.086  < 0.001
 Moderate/severe 294 (7.4) 215 (12.5) 6 (15.4) 8 (16.7)   
Anxiety       
 None/mild 2834 (77.2)* 1033 (71.7)* 23 (63.9) 22 (64.7) 0.065  < 0.001
 Moderate/severe 836 (22.8) 407 (28.3) 13 (36.1) 12 (35.3)   
  1. Results are based on Chi-Square tests (categorical variables) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests (continuous variables)
  2. NCI No Cognitive Impairment, CI Cognitive Impairment, SD Standard Deviation, CVD Cardiovascular Disease
  3. *Denotes a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between this category and the reference category (No stroke/ NCI)