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Table 1 Structure of the European Healthcare and Social Cost Database: Categories, subcategories and items

From: Development of the European Healthcare and Social Cost Database (EU HCSCD) for use in economic evaluation of healthcare programs

Category Subcategory Definition Costing items
Primary (homogenous) resources Medicines Drug or other preparation for the treatment or prevention of disease • Atorvastatin
• Paracetamol
• Trastuzumab
Medical devices Article, instrument, apparatus or machine that is used in the prevention, diagnosis or treatment of illness or disease, or for detecting, measuring, restoring, correcting or modifying the structure or function of the body for some health purpose [11]. • Drug eluting stent
• Wearable cardioverter-defibrillator
Health products/ Disposables Items designed for single use or those that may be used more than once after proper cleaning and sterilisation and/or disinfection [12]. • Glucose test strips
Personnel Labour time of health care professionals (e.g., workers employed in health care institutions or processes). • General practitioner
• Nurse
• Specialist
Composite goods and services Outpatient visit Visit of a patient who is not hospitalized overnight but who visits a hospital or clinic for diagnosis or non-surgical treatment [13]. Home visits (medical or nursing staff attending a patient at his home) and Accident and Emergency visits were also considered. • General practitioner visit
• Specialist visit
• Accident & Emergency visit
Hospitalization Admittance to the hospital as an inpatient [13]. • Day of hospitalization at “normal” ward
• Day of hospitalization at Intensive Care Unit
Image diagnosis Radiography, sonography, and other technologies used to create a graphic depiction of the body for diagnosis or therapeutic purposes [13]. • Ultrasound scan
• Computerized Tomography Scan
Laboratory tests Services provided by medical laboratories for the diagnosis of disease [13]. • Creatinine
• Ferritin
Ambulance service Service provided by a vehicle which can transport medical patients to the treatment site or back to their place of residence, and in some instances will also provide out-of-hospital medical care to the patient during the transportation. • Non-emergency patient transport
• Intensive care ambulance
Diagnostic procedures Type of test used to help diagnose a disease or condition [14]. • Colonoscopy
Therapeutic procedures Medicine or therapy used to cure disease or pain by the involvement and intercession of proactive, therapeutic practice [15]. • Haemodialysis
• Oxygen therapy
Complex processes and interventions Inpatient medical and surgical processes Require patients to stay the night following the surgery. • Heart failure (ICD10: 50)
• Hernia inguinal, femoral, umbilical (ICD10: K40, K41; K42)
Day case procedures/ Outpatient surgery Day case refers to a patient or case that comes into hospital for a surgical procedure and is dealt with and released in the course of one day [16]. Outpatient surgery refers to usually minor invasive interventions performed on ambulatory patients usually in a clinic or consulting room. • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
• Cataract extirpation