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Table 3 Incidence (%) of Use of Different Sources of Finance as a Coping Mechanism to meet the Total Maternity care by Households in India, 2017–18

From: Distress financing in coping with out-of-pocket expenditure for maternity care in India

Variables Categories Savings/House Hold Income Borrowings Insurance Others
Age of the Mother (in Years) 15–24 61.4 3.8 27.3 6.8
25–34 61.1 3.1 30.6 4.8
35–44 62.5 3.2 30.3 3.4
45 +  46.8 2.1 30.4 20.7
Residence Rural 63.6 3.7 26.4 5.9
Urban 54.6 2.7 37.4 4.8
Literacy of mother No literate 64.7 3.6 23.9 7.5
Literate without schooling 80.0 2.1 15.6 2.3
Primary 63.8 3.0 26.8 5.5
Secondary 61.8 3.8 28.0 5.9
Higher secondary 59.9 3.4 31.6 5.0
Graduate and above 51.5 2.8 42.2 3.2
Occupation of the mother Unpaid 61.6 3.4 29.1 5.5
Student 65.3 0.1 27.1 7.6
Self employed 61.0 4.1 26.2 8.8
Casual labour 61.7 3.8 22.6 10.6
Pension 75.7 0.0 16.9 7.4
Other 52.1 10.3 34.2 3.0
Salaried 39.9 3.2 54.3 2.4
Caste ST 59.0 2.2 33.5 5.0
  SC 63.2 4.3 25.7 6.4
  Others 61.0 3.3 29.8 5.4
Religion Hindu 61.5 3.6 28.8 5.7
Muslim 62.1 3.0 28.4 5.9
Others 54.0 2.2 40.8 3.0
Wealth Quartile Quartile 1 66.6 3.8 22.4 6.9
Quartile 2 64.3 3.9 24.7 6.7
Quartile 3 60.2 3.8 29.8 5.6
Quartile 4 53.8 2.2 40.4 3.1
Type of Health Facility Public 64.85 2.0 26.56 6.5
Private 53.95 6.8 35.82 3.4
EAG + A Uttarakhand 72.1 2.9 20.2 4.9
Rajasthan 40.2 3.5 54.6 0.8
Uttar Pradesh 74.8 3.8 12.1 8.7
Bihar 74.4 4.5 19.1 2.1
Assam 76.3 2.4 20.6 0.8
Jharkhand 49.5 2.7 41.8 5.5
Odisha 64.4 2.3 31.4 2.0
Chhattisgarh 79.9 2.0 14.3 3.3
Madhya Pradesh 72.5 2.4 9.8 14.6
EAG + A 67.9 3.4 22.3 5.9
Non-EAG Non-EAG 53.6 3.5 37.3 5.3
  India 57.8 3.1 34.4 4.4
  1. Note: The number of samples for the sale of physical assets category are very less to calculate averages