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Table 4 Types of ventilation

From: Hygiene management for long-term ventilated persons in the home health care setting: a scoping review


Invasively ventilated

Non-invasively ventilated

Ventilation duration

Toussaint et al., 2006 [24]

41% (per tracheostoma)

59% (per nasal mask)

All patients ventilated at home with EVA for > 12 months (mean time ventilated: 7.7 years)

Banfi et al., 2007 [29]


87.5% (per NPPV and nasal mask)

57.2% pressure assist ventilator and EVA

42.8% volume-assist ventilator

All patients had mechanical ventilation for a mean of 31 months

Chenoweth et al., 2007 [30]



Mean duration of ventilation per patient: 890.6 days

Neumann et al., 2016 [25]

Intensive care service: 70% (per tracheostoma)

Normal care service:


Not specified

Not specified

Schwerdtner et al., 2020 [27]

88% per tracheostomy, but not all ventilated at time of study

Not specified

Ventilation time per day:

16.7% permanently

29.2% < 24 h

Prasad et al., 2016 [26]

41% had airway ventilation (not further described)

Not specified

Cahill et al., 1997 [31]

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Horvath et al., 2018 [28]

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

  1. EVA  expiratory valve; NPPV  non-invasive positive pressure ventilation