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Table 4 Types of ventilation

From: Hygiene management for long-term ventilated persons in the home health care setting: a scoping review

Author Invasively ventilated Non-invasively ventilated Ventilation duration
Toussaint et al., 2006 [24] 41% (per tracheostoma) 59% (per nasal mask) All patients ventilated at home with EVA for > 12 months (mean time ventilated: 7.7 years)
Banfi et al., 2007 [29] 12.5% 87.5% (per NPPV and nasal mask)
57.2% pressure assist ventilator and EVA
42.8% volume-assist ventilator
All patients had mechanical ventilation for a mean of 31 months
Chenoweth et al., 2007 [30] 100% - Mean duration of ventilation per patient: 890.6 days
Neumann et al., 2016 [25] Intensive care service: 70% (per tracheostoma)
Normal care service:
Not specified Not specified
Schwerdtner et al., 2020 [27] 88% per tracheostomy, but not all ventilated at time of study Not specified Ventilation time per day:
16.7% permanently
29.2% < 24 h
Prasad et al., 2016 [26] 41% had airway ventilation (not further described) Not specified
Cahill et al., 1997 [31] Not specified Not specified Not specified
Horvath et al., 2018 [28] Not specified Not specified Not specified
  1. EVA  expiratory valve; NPPV  non-invasive positive pressure ventilation