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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Hygiene management for long-term ventilated persons in the home health care setting: a scoping review

Authors, publication year


Studies’ Settings

Home Care Setting


Study design

Data collection/ analysis

Cahill et al., 1997 [31]


SNF (hospital-based distinct-part and free-standing)


(1) Characteristics of infection prevention and control program, (2) policies for admitting and placing of MRSA- or VRE-colonized patients, (3) educational needs for infection prevention and control programs in skilled nursing facilities

Descriptive Study

Quantitative survey among ICPs

Toussaint et al., 2006 [24]


Centre for Home Mechanical Ventilation, Brusseles

Patients’ home

(1) HVC cleanliness and sterility of HVC, (2) efficiency of tubing cleaning and decontamination protocols recommended to patients

Non-randomised controlled trial

39 used and 7 new EVAs (as control) were examined in 2 different experiments (visual and microbiological analysis)

Banfi et al., 2007 [29]


At patients’ home

Patients’ home

Effectiveness and safety of home care treatment of ARF

Non-randomised controlled trial

Daily duration of ventilation and antibiotics (supervision of GP, nurse, and chest specialist)

Chenoweth et al., 2007 [30]


University-affiliated Home Care Services department, Michigan

Patients’ home

Characterise VAP in HMV patients: (1) rate and incidence, (2) demographic characteristics, (3) risk factors, (4) outcomes

Descriptive study

Data extraction from medical records (demographic and clinical variables)

Neumann et al., 2016 [25]


Nursing services (intensive care and normal care), Rhine-Main area

Not specified

(1) Prevalence of MDRO and risk factors for MDRO, (2) MDRO and MRSA-colonisation in intensive care services vs. other nursing services

Descriptive study

(1) Anamnestic survey in nursing homes, (2) microbiological analysis of throat, nasal and anal swabs

Prasad et al., 2016 [26]


Long-term care facility in New York City

Long-term care facility

Prevalence of asymptomatic rectal colonisation with CRE or CDI in long-term care patients

Descriptive study

(1) Microbiological analysis of rectal swabs, (2) retrospective chart review for patient demographics and risk factors

Horvath et al., 2018 [28]


18 intensive care SLC in Munich


(1) type of care provided in outpatient intensive care SLC in Munich, (2) grade of implementation of hygiene and emergency management

Descriptive study

(1) Structure analysis, (2) inspection of SLC, (3) review report

Schwerdtner et al., 2020 [27]


3 intensive care SLC in Jena


(1) prevalence of MDRO in SLC, (2) evaluation of hygiene management in SLC

Descriptive study

(1) Occasional inspection on hygiene management, (2) microbiological analysis of devices and throat/ nasal and anal swabs, (3) structural analysis, anamnestic data on MDRO-colonisation

  1. ARF, acute respiratory failure,CRE carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae,CDI clostridium difficile,EVA expiratory valve,GP general practitioner,HVC home ventilation circuit,ICP infection control practitioner,VAP ventilator associated pneumonia, MDRO multidrug-resistant organisms,SLC shared living community,SNF skilled nursing facility, VRE vancomycin-resistant enterococci