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Table 2 Data from baseline survey: characteristics of total cohort, patients with follow-up data available, follow-up non-participants (total), patients who died prior to intended follow-up, and follow-up non-participants excluding patients who died

From: Emergency department consultations for respiratory symptoms revisited: exploratory investigation of longitudinal trends in patients’ perspective on care, health care utilization, and general and mental health, from a multicenter study in Berlin, Germany

Variable Measure Total cohort Follow-up sub-cohort Follow-up non-participants (total) Follow-up non-participants who died Follow-up non-participants, excl. patients who died
Participants n 472 329 143 15 128
Demographics
Age n 472 329 143 15 128
Mean (SD) 53.6 (19.2) 54.6 (18.3) 51.3 (21.0) 79.7 (7.1) 48.0 (19.5)
Median (Range) 55.0 (18–96) 56.0 (18–92) 51.0 (18–96) 81.0 (67–92) 46.0 (18–96)
Sex n 472 329 143 15 128
  Male % 53.2 52.9 53.8 73.3 51.6
  Female % 46.8 47.1 46.2 26.7 48.4
Migration and travel n 466 326 140 15 125
  Migrant first generation % 21.9 17.2 32.9 6.7 36.0
  Second generation % 6.9 6.1 8.6 0.0 9.6
  Tourist % 4.3 1.2 11.4 0.0 12.8
Education (CASMIN) n 463 325 138 15 123
  Low % 25.5 23.7 29.7 73.3 24.4
  Intermediate % 43.6 46.8 36.2 20.0 38.2
  High % 30.9 29.5 34.1 6.7 37.4
ED consultation
Means of arrival n 462 319 143 15 128
  Walk-in % 63.0 60.2 69.2 26.7 74.2
  EMS % 30.7 31.7 28.7 73.3 23.4
  Ambulance transport % 6.3 8.2 2.1 0.0 2.3
Initiation of visit n 465 325 140 15 125
  Self-referred % 62.8 59.4 70.7 60.0 72.0
  Health professional % 37.2 40.6 29.3 40.0 28.0
Triage category n 456 317 139 14 125
  Lower urgency % 41.9 40.4 45.3 0.0 50.4
  Higher urgency % 58.1 59.6 54.7 100.0 49.6
Time of presentation n 472 329 143 15 128
  Out-of-hours visit % 17.2 16.7 18.2 33.3 16.4
  During office hours % 82.8 83.3 81.8 66.7 83.6
ED symptoms
Symptom novelty n 467 326 141 15 126
  New symptoms % 36.4 37.7 33.3 0.0 37.3
  Recurrent symptoms % 63.6 62.3 66.7 100.0 62.7
Symptom-associated distress n 442 312 130   
Mean (SD) 7.2 (1.8) 7.3 (1.8) 7.0 (1.9) 7.4 (1.9) 6.9 (1.9)
Median (Range) 7.5 (1.5–10) 7.5 (2.0–10) 7.0 (1.5–10) 8.0 (3.5–9.5) 7.0 (1.5–10)
Chronic conditions and care
Chronic pulmonary condition n 467 326 141 15 126
yes: % 58.7 62.0 51.1 66.7 49.2
Multimorbidity n 465 325 140 15 125
yes: % 53.5 58.8 41.4 73.3 37.6
Attached to GP n 464 323 141 15 126
yes: % 86.6 90.7 77.3 100.0 74.6
Mental and general health
PHQ-4 anxiety subscale n 467 326 141 15 126
Mean (SD) 1.7 (1.9) 1.6 (1.8) 2.0 (2.0) 1.8 (2.1) 2.0 (2.0)
Median (Range) 1.0 (0–6) 1.0 (0–6) 1.0 (0–6) 1.0 (0–6) 1.0 (0–6)
PHQ-4 depression subscale n 467 326 141 15 126
Mean (SD) 2.2 (2.2) 2.1 (2.1) 2.4 (2.3) 2.7 (2.3) 2.3 (2.3)
Median (Range) 2.0 (0–6) 2.0 (0–6) 2.0 (0–6) 3.0 (0–6) 2.0 (0–6)
General life satisfaction n 457 321 136 15 121
Mean (SD) 6.9 (2.6) 7.1 (2.5) 6.7 (2.8) 6.4 (3.1) 6.7 (2.8)
Median (Range) 8.0 (0–10) 8.0 (0–10) 8.0 (0–10) 8.0 (0–10) 8.0 (0–10)
General health n 466 325 141 15 126
Mean (SD) 45.9 (25.0) 45.8 (24.6) 46.1 (25.9) 33.2 (23.3) 47.6 (25.8)
Median (Range) 50.0 (0–100) 50.0 (0–100) 50.0 (0–100) 40.0 (0–80.0) 50.0 (0–100)
ED visit outcomes
Diagnoses n 472 329 143 15 128
  Pneumonia J12-J18 % 23.3 25.8 17.5 26.7 16.4
  COPD and chronic bronchitis J40-J44 % 34.3 38.3 25.2 60.0 21.1
  Asthma bronchiale J45-J46 % 9.7 8.8 11.9 0.0 13.3
  Other respiratory tract infection J09-J11, J20-J22 % 8.5 8.5 8.4 0.0 9.4
  Upper airway conditions J0x/J3x % 10.2 8.2 14.7 0.0 16.4
  Respiratory symptom diagnosis only (R section code) % 14.4 14.0 15.4 13.3 15.6
  Respiratory failure J96 % 19.5 20.7 16.8 46.7 13.3
Visit consequence n 472 329 143 15 128
  Outpatients % 61.2 58.4 67.8 20.0 73.4
  Hospital admission % 38.8 41.6 32.2 80.0 26.6
  1. n Cases with available data for respective characteristic, % Percentage of cases with available data; Ranges reported with median values refer to minimum and maximum; Migration and travel: first generation = not born in Germany, second generation = participant born in Germany and mother/father (or both) born in another country; Education: CASMIN Comparative Analysis of Social Mobility in Industrial Nations scale, trichotomized; Triage category: MTS categories 4 and 5 = lower urgency, categories 1,2 and 3 = higher urgency; Time of presentation: out-of-hours defined as between 6 pm and 8 am on weekdays, plus weekends and Wednesdays afternoons after 2 pm; Subjective symptom-associated distress, general life satisfaction: 0–10 scales; Chronic pulmonary condition: if either self-reported or documented in hospital records; Multimorbidity = two or more self-reported chronic conditions; PHQ-4 anxiety and depression: 0–6 subscales; General health: 0–100 visual analogue scale; Diagnoses: ICD-10 codes, multiple diagnoses possible for individual cases