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Table 4 Logistic regression analysis of health care-seeking behavior

From: The impact of current smoking, regular drinking, and physical inactivity on health care-seeking behavior in China

  Pooled logistic Random effects logistic Fixed effects logistic
(i) (ii) (iii)
Odds Ratios (95% CI) Odds Ratios (95% CI) Odds Ratios (95% CI)
Smoking status
 Current smoking 0.84*** (0.75, 0.93) 0.79*** (0.69, 0.89) 0.65*** (0.50, 0.84)
 Never smoking 0.90* (0.80, 1.00) 0.86** (0.75, 0.98) 0.79* (0.60, 1.04)
Former smoking (ref.)
 Regular drinking 0.76*** (0.71, 0.82) 0.72*** (0.67, 0.79) 0.77*** (0.65, 0.91)
 Physical inactivity 0.76*** (0.72, 0.79) 0.73*** (0.69, 0.77) 0.76*** (0.69, 0.83)
Age group
 16–24 (ref.)    
  25–64 1.18*** (1.07, 1.31) 1.23*** (1.09, 1.39) 0.97 (0.69, 1.37)
   > =65 1.57*** (1.40, 1.75) 1.74*** (1.52, 2.00) 1.74*** (1.17, 2.59)
  Male 0.98 (0.92, 1.05) 0.97 (0.90, 1.06) 0.99 (0.32, 3.26)
Educational attainment
 Illiteracy (ref.)    
  Elementary school 0.99 (0.93, 1.07) 1.01 (0.93, 1.10) 1.15 (0.86, 1.55)
  Middle school 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 0.99 (0.91, 1.08) 1.23 (0.83,1.81)
  High school 0.79*** (0.73, 0.86) 0.76*** (0.68, 0.84) 1.18 (0.71, 1.96)
  Above three-year college 0.59*** (0.53, 0.66) 0.53*** (0.47, 0.61) 1.21 (0.67, 2.20)
  Married 1.24*** (1.16, 1.33) 1.30*** (1.19, 1.41) 0.91 (0.72, 1.16)
  Urban residency 0.83*** (0.79, 0.88) 0.80*** (0.75, 0.86) 1.25** (1.00, 1.56)
Medical insurance
 GMI 1.24*** (1.08, 1.43) 1.25** (1.05, 1.48) 1.01 (0.74, .139)
 UEMI 1.14*** (1.04, 1.26) 1.14** (1.01, 1.27) 1.08 (0.87, 1.35)
 URMI 1.14** (1.03, 1.27) 1.17** (1.03, 1.32) 1.19 (0.97, 1.46)
 NRCMI 1.51*** (1.40, 1.62) 1.57*** (1.44, 1.71) 1.09 (0.93, 1.28)
 Other Insurance 0.92 (0.67, 1.27) 0.87 (0.60, 1.27) 0.89 (0.51, 1.54)
No Insurance (ref.)
 Household income 1.01** (1.00, 1.01) 1.01*** (1.00, 1.01) 1.01** (1.00, 1.02)
 Economically active 1.01 (0.96, 1.07) 1.03 (0.97, 1.10) 1.04 (0.92, 1.17)
Health status
 Poor 1.38*** (1.29, 1.47) 1.46*** (1.36, 1.58) 1.42*** (1.26, 1.59)
Fair (ref.)
 Good 0.94** (0.89, 0.99) 0.94* (0.88, 1.00) 1.04 (0.93, 1.16)
 Chronic conditions 2.42*** (2.29, 2.57) 2.69*** (2.51, 2.88) 2.04*** (1.85, 2.25)
Severity of physical discomfort
 Mild 0.58*** (0.55, 0.61) 0.52*** (0.48, 0.55) 0.52*** (0.47, 0.58)
Moderate (ref.)
 Serious 1.87*** (1.76, 1.98) 2.09*** (1.95, 2.24) 1.94*** (1.75, 2.15)
 Constant 1.44*** (1.21, 1.72) 1.62*** (1.32, 1.99)  
 Observations 44,362 44,362 13,036
  1. Likelihood ratio test in random effects logistic model: LR = 569.63, p < 0.001
  2. Hausman’s specification test is significant at the 1% level: χ2(24) = 162.32, p < 0.001
  3. Asterisks*** indicate statistical significance at the 1% level, ** at the 5% level, and * at the 10% level