Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline Patient Characteristics (2003–2009)

From: Hospital market concentration and the use of mechanical circulatory support devices in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock

  Competitive / Unconcentrated Moderately Concentrated Highly Concentrated p-value
(n = 10,873) (n = 6526) (n = 15,007)
Age (years) 68.2 68.7 69.5 < 0.01
Median household income     < 0.01
 First quartile 2657 (24.4%) 1529 (23.4%) 4094 (27.3%)  
 Second quartile 2500 (23.0%) 1318 (20.2%) 4226 (28.2%)  
 Third quartile 2705 (24.9%) 1593 (24.4%) 3793 (25.3%)  
 Fourth quartile 2729 (25.1%) 1924 (29.5%) 2504 (16.7%)  
 Unknown 282 (2.6%) 162 (2.5%) 390 (2.6%)  
Payer status     < 0.01
 Medicare 6286 (57.8%) 3890 (59.6%) 9534 (63.5%)  
 Medicaid 763 (7.0%) 382 (5.9%) 726 (4.8%)  
 Private insurance 2838 (26.1%) 1768 (27.1%) 3542 (23.6%)  
 Self-pay / no charge / other 986 (9.1%) 486 (7.4%) 1205 (8.0%)  
Comorbid conditions
 Congestive heart failure 6000 (55.2%) 3477 (53.3%) 8091 (53.9%) 0.03
 Valvular disease 2142 (19.7%) 1143 (17.5%) 2879 (19.2%) < 0.01
 Pulmonary circulation disorders 564 (5.2%) 280 (4.3%) 647 (4.3%) < 0.01
 Peripheral vascular disease 1132 (10.4%) 628 (9.6%) 1439 (9.6%) 0.06
 Paralysis 108 (1.0%) 52 (0.8%) 131 (0.9%) 0.37
 Neurologic disease 599 (5.5%) 343 (5.3%) 826 (5.5%) 0.73
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2162 (19.9%) 1464 (22.4%) 3641 (24.3%) < 0.01
 Diabetes mellitus, uncomplicated 2284 (21.0%) 1408 (21.6%) 3115 (20.8%) 0.4
 Diabetes mellitus, with chronic complications 559 (5.1%) 331 (5.1%) 692 (4.6%) 0.11
 Hypothyroidism 532 (4.9%) 342 (5.2%) 814 (5.4%) 0.16
 Chronic kidney disease 1821 (16.7%) 1179 (18.1%) 2543 (16.9%) 0.06
 Liver disease 142 (1.3%) 85 (1.3%) 189 (1.3%) 0.94
 Lymphoma 62 (0.6%) 33 (0.5%) 92 (0.6%) 0.63
 Solid tumor without metastasis 304 (2.8%) 142 (2.2%) 371 (2.5%) 0.03
 Metastatic cancer 128 (1.2%) 62 (1.0%) 165 (1.1%) 0.38
 Collagen vascular disease 145 (1.3%) 98 (1.5%) 228 (1.5%) 0.44
 Coagulopathy 1337 (12.3%) 671 (10.3%) 1336 (8.9%) < 0.01
 Obesity 508 (4.7%) 365 (5.6%) 828 (5.5%) < 0.01
 Weight loss 641 (5.9%) 423 (6.5%) 804 (5.4%) < 0.01
 Fluid and electrolyte disorders 3973 (36.5%) 2435 (37.3%) 5278 (35.2%) < 0.01
 Chronic blood loss anemia 188 (1.7%) 118 (1.8%) 279 (1.9%) 0.74
 Deficiency anemia 1325 (12.2%) 922 (14.1%) 1753 (11.7%) < 0.01
 Alcohol abuse 347 (3.2%) 168 (2.6%) 452 (3.0%) 0.07
 Drug abuse 168 (1.5%) 85 (1.3%) 172 (1.1%) 0.02
 Psychoses 176 (1.6%) 93 (1.4%) 189 (1.3%) 0.05
 Depression 294 (2.7%) 158 (2.4%) 380 (2.5%) 0.49
 Hypertension 4746 (43.6%) 3003 (46.0%) 6702 (44.7%) 0.01