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Table 4 Predictors as per logistic regression, presented as Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval). All Odds Ratios significant at p < 0.05

From: Profiles and predictors of healthcare utilization: using a cluster-analytic approach to identify typical users across conventional, allied and complementary medicine, and self-care

   Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5 Cluster 6 Cluster 7 Cluster 8 Cluster 9
Sociodemographics   n = 31.3
15.3%
n = 35.1
17.1%
n = 15.4
7.5%
n = 26.7
13.0%
n = 20.2
9.8%
n = 25.4
12.4%
n = 15.0
7.3%
n = 18.1
8.8%
n = 18.1
8.8%
Age, in years 18–29 Reference Reference   Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
30–39 1.09
0.90; 1.31
1.23
1.10; 1.39
  0.89
0.75; 1.05
1.10
0.94; 1.29
0.98
0.85; 1.13
0.74
0.63; 0.86
0.96
0.83; 1.11
1.21
1.00; 1.45
40–49 1.15
0.96; 1.38
1.19
1.05;1.34
  1.13
0.96; 1.33
1.00
0.84; 1.18
1.02
0.88; 1.17
0.79
0.68; 0.92
0.84
0.73; 0.98
1.23
1.02; 1.49
50–64 1.68
1.41; 1.99
1.12
0.99; 1.27
  1.40
1.20; 1.64
0.98
0.82; 1.17
0.86
0.74; 0.99
0.57
0.48; 0.68
0.88
0.76; 1.03
0.98
0.81; 1.20
> 65 2.45
1.97; 3.06
0.88
0.70; 1.10
  2.01
1.61; 2.50
0.49
0.31; 0.77
0.49
0.37; 0.65
0.37
0.25; 0.57
0.68
0.50; 0.93
0.73
0.52; 1.02
Gender Male Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Female 1.49
1.35; 1.65
1.30
1.20; 1.41
0.82
0.72; 0.92
1.72
1.55; 1.91
0.43
0.38; 0.49
0.77
0.70; 0.85
0.67
0.59; 0.75
1.21
1.09; 1.34
0.62
0.55; 0.71
Ethnicity Non-Hispanic White Reference   Reference   Reference Reference Reference   
Hispanic 0.59
0.49; 0.71
  0.88
0.75; 1.03
  1.35
1.16; 1.57
1.32
1.14; 1.53
1.25
1.07; 1.46
  
Black 0.62
0.52; 0.74
  0.90
0.74; 1.09
  1.41
1.18; 1.68
1.22
1.05; 1.42
1.13
0.93; 1.36
  
Asian 0.44
0.34; 0.58
  1.31
1.03; 1.67
  1.61
1.25; 2.06
1.19
0.96; 1.48
1.38
1.09; 1.75
  
Other 0.38
0.16; 0.89
  1.37
0.79; 2.40
  1.48
0.85; 2.59
1.24
0.68; 2.26
1.14
0.56; 2.35
  
Region West   Reference Reference    Reference Reference Reference Reference
Northeast   0.84
0.74; 0.96
0.50
0.41; 0.62
   1.62
1.39; 1.89
1.54
1.29; 1.85
0.70
0.59; 0.82
1.33
1.09; 1.63
Midwest   0.81
0.72; 0.91
0.68
0.57; 0.80
   1.33
1.15; 1.55
1.18
0.99; 1.41
0.91
0.79; 1.04
1.27
1.05; 1.53
South   0.87
0.79; 0.97
0.87
0.75; 1.00
   1.32
1.15; 1.52
1.18
1.00; 1.39
0.83
0.73; 0.95
1.41
1.19; 1.67
Education Less than high school Reference   Reference Reference Reference Reference   Reference Reference
High school 2.18
1.67; 2.86
  1.05
0.87; 1.26
1.81
1.42; 2.31
0.63
0.54; 0.73
1.32
1.09; 1.60
  1.09
0.90; 1.33
0.72
0.61; 0.86
College or more 3.31
2.52; 4.35
  0.79
0.64; 0.97
2.07
1.61; 2.66
0.39
0.32; 0.47
1.08
0.89; 1.32
  1.33
1.09; 1.62
0.55
0.45; 0.67
Income <  20.000 Reference   Reference Reference Reference     Reference
20.000–34.999 1.08
0.93; 1.26
  1.37
1.18; 1.58
0.87
0.75; 1.02
0.78
0.68; 0.90
    1.07
0.91; 1.25
35.000–64.999 1.15
0.99; 1.33
  1.14
0.96; 1.34
0.95
0.82; 1.10
0.68
0.57; 0.80
    0.76
0.63; 0.91
>  65.000 1.31
1.11; 1.54
  0.84
0.71; 0.91
1.17
1.00; 1.38
0.39
0.30; 0.50
    0.51
0.40; 0.65
Marital status in relationship Reference   Reference Reference Reference     
not in relationship 1.22
1.10; 1.37
  0.81
0.71; 0.91
  0.86
0.77; 0.98
    
BMI 18.5 to 25      Reference Reference   Reference Reference
up to 18.5      0.77
0.47; 1.26
   1.23
0.83; 1.83
1.57
0.99; 2.50
25–30      1.05
0.92; 1.21
   1.05
0.93; 1.18
1.22
1.04; 1.43
30 and more      1.20
1.03; 1.38
   0.86
0.75; 0.98
1.31
1.12; 1.54
Health status very good/excellent Reference   Reference Reference   Reference Reference Reference Reference
good 1.33
1.18; 1.49
  1.19
1.04; 1.36
0.93
0.83; 1.05
  0.81
0.72; 0.91
  0.71
0.62; 0.81
1.33
1.16; 1.53
fair to poor 2.18
1.81; 2.63
  0.99
0.77; 1.27
0.54
0.42; 0.71
  0.77
0.61; 0.97
  0.38
0.27; 0.55
1.75
1.42; 2.16
Multiple chronic conditions no condition Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
one condition 1.78
1.58; 2.00
1.10
1.00; 1.22
0.51
0.43; 0.60
1.23
1.09; 1.38
0.58
0.49; 0.68
1.20
1.07; 1.35
0.63
0.53; 0.74
0.59
0.51; 0.68
1.19
1.03; 1.38
two conditions 2.60
2.22; 3.03
0.97
0.83;1.13
0.50
0.39; 0.66
1.28
1.08; 1.52
0.30
0.21; 0.42
0.93
0.76; 1.13
0.27
0.18; 0.40
0.39
0.29; 0.51
1.17
0.93; 1.47
≥ three conditions 4.76
3.89; 5.82
0.58
0.44; 0.75
0.15
0.08; 0.29
1.07
0.82; 1.39
0.33
0.22; 0.51
0.69
0.50; 0.96
0.18
0.09; 0.36
0.18
0.10; 0.34
1.43
1.07; 1.90
Smoking Non smoking Reference    Reference Reference    Reference Reference
Smoking 0.59
0.51; 0.69
   0.81
0.70; 0.94
1.79
1.57; 2.04
   0.83
0.72; 0.96
1.51
1.31; 1.74
Alcohol consumption Abstainers Reference Reference   Reference Reference Reference    Reference
Light 1.16
1.03; 1.31
1.20
1.09; 1.33
  1.21
1.07; 1.36
0.76
0.67; 0.87
0.80
0.71; 0.89
   0.82
0.71; 0.95
Moderate to heavy 1.06
0.92; 1.23
1.20
1.07; 1.35
  1.17
1.01; 1.35
0.87
0.74; 1.01
0.81
0.71; 0.93
   0.78
0.65; 0.93
Exercise Sedentary   Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference   Reference Reference
Moderate level   1.00
0.90; 1.12
1.28
1.11; 1.48
1.11
0.98; 1.26
0.65
0.55; 0.77
0.71
0.62; 0.82
  1.30
1.15; 1.47
0.75
0.62; 0.90
High level   1.25
1.06; 1.48
1.19
0.95; 1.49
1.27
1.04; 1.56
0.76
0.60; 0.95
0.80
0.65; 0.99
  0.87
0.69; 1.09
0.77
0.58; 1.02
Health insurance no insurance Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference    Reference
public 3.76
2.87; 4.92
1.45
1.21; 1.74
0.30
0.23; 0.39
2.24
1.74; 2.89
0.32
0.26; 0.40
3.33
2.63; 4.22
   1.43
1.15; 1.79
private 3.37
2.68; 4.24
1.54
1.36; 1.74
0.36
0.31; 0.41
2.45
2.00; 2.99
0.27
0.23; 0.31
3.15
2.61; 3.79
   0.99
0.84; 1.17
Could not afford Prescription medication   1.22
1.03; 1.44
   0.73
0.60; 0.90
  0.67
0.48; 0.94
  1.45
1.20; 1.76
Mental Care      0.65
0.44; 0.97
    
Dental Care   1.30
1.14; 1.49
1.64
1.42; 1.90
0.71
0.58; 0.87
  0.56
0.45; 0.69
0.69
0.54; 0.88
0.68
0.57; 0.82
 
Eyeglass     1.34
1.06; 1.69
  0.69
0.51; 0.92
0.70
0.50; 0.99
  
Specialist 1.86
1.48; 2.34