Skip to main content

Table 2 Percentage of positive ratings for each survey item, composite and outcome compared to international, regional and national benchmarks

From: Correction to: Baseline assessment of patient safety culture in primary care centres in Kuwait: a national cross-sectional study

Survey item Kuwait 2018 US 2018 Yemen 2015 Kuwait 2014*
1. Teamwork 87.8 86.5 96.0 80.3 a
1.1. When someone in this centre gets really busy, others help out (22) 87.1 86   97   68.0  
1.2. In this centre, there is a good working relationship between staff and providers (23) 88.3 90   97    
1.3. In this centre, we treat each other with respect (26) 92.0 85   96   86.0  
1.4. This centre emphasises teamwork in taking care of patients (34) 83.8 85   94   87.0  
2. Work Pressure and Pace 28.4 46.3 57.3 41.0 b
2.1. In this centre, we often feel rushed when taking care of patients (24R) 20.1 38   67   24.0  
2.2. We have too many patients for the number of providers in this centre (27R) 12.2 45   58    
2.3. We have enough staff to handle our patient load (32) 50.6 46   49   58.0  
2.4. This centre has too many patients to be able to handle everything effectively (35R) 30.7 56   55    
3. Staff Training 72.4 72.3 68.3 c  
3.1. This centre trains staff when new processes are put into place (25) 81.2 76   57    
3.2. This centre makes sure staff get the on-the-job training they need (28) 77.8 75   74    
3.3. Staff in this centre are asked to do tasks they haven’t been trained to do (31R) 58.1 66   74    
4. Office Processes and Standardisation 65.5 67.5 64.8 c  
4.1. This centre is more disorganised than it should be (29R) 59.5 64   46    
4.2. We have good procedures for checking that work in this centre was done correctly (30) 79.0 71   73    
4.3. We have problems with workflow in this centre (33R) 48.3 53   59    
4.4. Staff in this centre follow standardised processes to get tasks done (36) 75.4 82   81    
5. Communication Openness 54.4 69.5 58.5 51.0 a
5.1. Providers in this centre are open to staff ideas about how to improve centre processes (37) 59.2 73   53   70.0  
5.2. Staff are encouraged to express alternative viewpoints in this centre (38) 52.3 73   48   37.0  
5.3. Staff are afraid to ask questions when something does not seem right (40R) 54.1 73   72   46.0  
5.4. It is difficult to voice disagreement in this centre (46R) 51.9 59   61    
6. Patient Care Tracking/Follow-up 70.6 86.3 52.3 c  
6.1. This centre reminds patients when they need to schedule an appointment for preventive or routine care (39) 72.9 88   60    
6.2. This centre documents how well our chronic-care patients follow their treatment plans (41) 77.1 80   55    
6.3. Our centre follows up when we do not receive a report we are expecting from an outside provider (42) 51.3 86   26    
6.4. This centre follows up with patients who need monitoring (45) 81.3 91   68    
7. Communication about Error 57.7 72.0 67.0 51.3 a
7.1. Staff feel like their mistakes are held against them (43R) 33.1 63   67   33.0  
7.2. Providers and staff talk openly about centre problems (44) 57.2 64   79   53.0  
7.3. In this centre, we discuss ways to prevent errors from happening again (47) 72.1 82   74   68.0  
7.4. Staff are willing to report mistakes they observe in this centre (48) 68.3 79   48    
8. Owner/Managing Partner/Leadership Support for Patient Safety 53.8 66.0 64.0 54.3 a
8.1. They aren’t investing enough resources to improve the quality of care in this centre (49R) 38.2 47   50   47.0  
8.2. They overlook patient care mistakes that happen over and over (50R) 50.3 78   69   38.0  
8.4. They place a high priority on improving patient care processes (51) 80.7 80   78   78.0  
8.5. They make decisions too often based on what is best for the centre rather than what is best for patients (52R) 45.9 59   59    
9. Organisational Learning 78.8 78.7 83.3 67.0 b
9.1. When there is a problem in our centre, we see if we need to change the way we do things (53) 80.8 83   86    
9.2. This centre is good at changing centre processes to make sure the same problems don’t happen again (57) 78.2 79   64   67.0  
9.3. After this centre makes changes to improve the patient care process, we check to see if the changes worked (59) 77.4 74   100   67.0  
10. Overall Perceptions of Patient Safety and Quality 57.4 77.3 76.8 30.0 d
10.1. Our centre processes are good at preventing mistakes that could affect patients (54) 76.8 85   87    
10.2. Mistakes happen more than they should in this centre (55R) 65.8 77   98    
10.3. It is just by chance that we don’t make more mistakes that affect our patients (56R) 43.2 77   85    
10.4. In this centre, getting more work done is more important than quality of care (58R) 43.8 70   37   30.0  
Average patient safety culture percentage across all composites 62.7 72.1 68.4 53.6
List of Patient Safety and Quality Issues 81.3 84.7 NR   NA  
 A patient was unable to get an appointment within 48 h for an acute/serious problem 79.6 76   NR   NA  
 The wrong chart/medical record was used for a patient 84.7 97   NR   NA  
 A patient’s chart/medical record was not available when needed 80 93   NR   NA  
 Medical information was filed, scanned, or entered into the wrong chart/medical record 86.2 95   NR   NA  
 Medical equipment was not working properly or was in need of repair or replacement 76.1 89   NR   NA  
 A pharmacy contacted our centre to clarify or correct a prescription 76.2 61   NR   NA  
 A patient’s medication list was not updated during his or her visit 80.4 79   NR   NA  
 The results from a lab or imaging test were not available when needed 80 79   NR   NA  
 A critical abnormal result from a lab or imaging test was not followed up within 1 business day 88.2 93   NR   NA  
Information Exchange with Other Settings 81.4 79.8 NR   NA  
 Outside labs centres? 77.9 79   NR   NA  
 Outside imaging centres? 85.3 78   NR   NA  
 Pharmacies? 87.4 79   NR   NA  
 Hospitals? 82.7 83   NR   NA  
 Other? 73.9 NA   NR   NA  
Overall Ratings on Quality 54.5 68.8 56.4 NA  
 Patient Centred: Is responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values 51.7 72   72   NA  
 Effective: Is based on scientific knowledge 54.2 72   40   NA  
 Timely: Minimises waits and potentially harmful delays 53.2 56   43   NA  
 Efficient: Ensures cost-effective care (avoids waste, overuse, and misuse of services) 52.9 61   46   NA  
 Equitable: Provides the same quality of care to all individuals regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, socio-economic status, language, etc. 60.6 83   81   NA  
Overall Rating on Patient Safety: Overall, how would you rate the systems and clinical processes your Primary Care Centre has in place to prevent, catch, and correct problems that have the potential to affect patients? 60.4 68 NR   NA  
Information Exchange within Your Primary Care Centre 77.2 NA   NA   NA  
 Primary care centre labs? 78.3 NA   NA   NA  
 Imaging services within your Primary Care Centre? 79.2 NA   NA   NA  
 Other clinics/physicians? 81.8 NA   NA   NA  
 Primary Care Centre pharmacy? 85.2 NA   NA   NA  
 Other? 61.3 NA   NA   NA  
  1. The composite-level percentage of responses is the average of composite items percentages.
  2. The item-level percentage of responses was calculated using the following formula: [number of positive responses to the items in the composite/total number of responses to the items in the composite (excluding missing responses)] × 100.
  3. The number in parentheses after the item is the question number from the survey.
  4. R: Negatively worded items that were reverse-coded.
  5. ▲: Results exceeding the benchmark (greater than + 10%).
  6. : Results meeting the benchmark (between + 10% and − 10%).
  7. : Results deviating slightly from the benchmark (between −10% and − 30%).
  8. : Results deviating greatly from the benchmark (below −30%).
  9. *: Results are selected from comparable items in the HSOPSC conducted at 3 PHCs
  10. aThree comparable items in the composite
  11. bTwo comparable items in the composite
  12. cNo comparable items in the composite
  13. dOne comparable items in the composite
  14. NA: Not applicable.
  15. NR: Not reported.