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Table 3 Percent of participants who perceive given barriers to accessing sexual and reproductive health services

From: Adolescents’ perceived barriers to accessing sexual and reproductive health services in California: a cross-sectional survey

  Group
n
Test results Cost of service Confidentiality of service Discomfort talking with staff Judgment by staff Lack of knowledge about visit Lack of access 5 or more Barriers
All participants 10,015 52.7 52.0 49.8 36.7 36.4 29.1 26.3 17.8
Gender
 Male (reference) 5,166 51.1 49.4 43.9 35.1 30.1 27.1 22.5 13.3
 Female 4,664 54.5** 54.4*** 56.1*** 37.9* 42.8*** 31.1*** 29.8*** 22.3***
 Transgender/non-binary/multiple genders 129 53.9 68.8*** 59.2** 49.2** 53.5*** 34.1 42.5*** 32.6***
Age
 10-14 years (reference) 4,579 56.3 54.9 53.8 43.8 40.2 33.9 30.8 21.8
 15-19 years 5,369 49.6*** 49.4*** 46.4*** 30.6*** 33.2*** 24.9*** 22.4*** 14.5***
Sexual orientation
 Straight/heterosexual (reference) 8,140 51.9 50.7 48.7 36.3 34.8 28.5 25.3 16.6
 LGBQ+ 1,503 57.0*** 59.2*** 56.7*** 37.5 44.7*** 31.1* 31.0*** 25.1***
Ethnicity/race
 Hispanic (reference) 7,546 53.0 52.6 50.6 35.9 36.7 27.9 25.8 17.6
 Non-Hispanic White 968 46.8** 51.3 46.5 41.2* 36.0 34.4** 29.7 19.1
 Non-Hispanic Black 479 47.8 39.5*** 40.9** 30.8 28.9* 23.5 18.3** 11.1**
 Non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander/Native Hawaiian 407 65.8*** 62.4** 54.9 44.0* 44.4* 38.4*** 32.3 29.7***
 Non-Hispanic American Indian/ Alaska Native 133 58.6 44.6 42.9 42.3 40.5 36.4 32.8 17.3
 Non-Hispanic Multiple 331 52.6 45.8 48.1 33.5 29.5 29.4 27.2 13.9
Living situation
 Stable housing (reference) 8,585 52.6 53.0 51.3 37.0 36.9 29.5 26.8 18.5
 Foster care 591 57.5 50.9 46.7 34.8 37.5 24.6 25.3 15.9
 Juvenile justice facility 357 43.2** 31.0*** 22.5*** 22.8*** 19.9*** 22.1* 11.0*** 5.6***
 Unstable housing 224 53.4 55.9 47.5 42.0 45.9 31.4 31.7 17.4
Ever had vaginal and/or anal sex
 No (reference) 7,039 54.8 55.0 53.1 40.5 38.7 31.8 28.7 20.3
 Yes 2,851 47.9*** 44.7*** 41.9*** 26.5*** 30.7*** 22.5*** 20.0*** 11.8***
  1. Note: Cell entries are the percent who agree. Asterisks indicate statistically significant difference compared to reference group (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001)