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Table 1 Input values and distributions used in the base case and sensitivity analysis

From: Benefits, risks, and cost-effectiveness of COVID-19 self-tests from a consumer’s perspective

Input Mean (range) Reference
Epidemiological and clinical data
 IFR in Germany (without vaccine) 0.014 (0.011–0.017) [17, 18]
 IFR by age (without vaccine) Age-specific [17,18,19]
 Percent fully vaccinated   [6]
  Age 18–59 0.72  
  Age 60+ 0.84  
 Vaccine effectiveness against death   [20]
  Age 18–59 0.96  
  Age 60+ 0.90  
 Vaccine effectiveness against ICU admission, age 18+ 0.93 [20]
 Lost life years due to COVID-19 6.5 [21]
 Preference weight in the absence of COVID-19 0.8 [22]
 Probability of ICU admission 0.026 [19]
 ICU mortality rate 0.26 [19]
 Preference weight after ICU discharge 0.58 [23]
 Probability of hospital admission, age 80+ 0.29 [13]
 Life expectancy after ICU discharge, years 2.1 [24, 25]
 Prevalence of long COVID syndrome 0.025 (0.025–0.117) [26]
 Preference weight of long COVID syndrome 0.53 (0.42–0.64) [27]
 7-day incidence rate 65 (30–200)  
 Proportion of undetected COVID-19 cases 0.50 [16]
 Asymptomatic infection rate 0.191 [28]
 Symptomatic infection rate 0.254 [28]
 Average incubation period, days 5.8 [29]
 Average infectious period, days 14 [30]
Test data
 Test sensitivity 0.81 (0.70–0.90) [2]
 Test specificity 0.98 [2]
 Rapid COVID-19 antigen self-test, € 2 (0.80–2)  
Additional data
 Annual gross household income, € 56,808 [31]
  1. ICU intensive care unit, QALY quality-adjusted life year