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Table 3 Service development initiatives spanning health and social care

From: Recognition of risk and prevention in safeguarding of children and young people: a mapping review and component analysis of service development interventions aimed at health and social care professionals



Professionals involved

Type of service

Type of evaluation

Findings related to awareness

Bunn 2013 [23]

Health and social care services in England

Multiple groups

Multidisciplinary teams

Signs of Safety model for risk assessment and safety planning

Cross-sectional (survey and interviews)

Local authorities using the model in different ways, need for long-term evaluation of outcomes

Care Quality Commission 2016 [24]

Health and social care services in England

Multiple groups

Services for ‘looked after’ children


Examples of good and innovative practice but more needs to be done to identify children at risk of harm

Daniel 2010 [25]

Health and social care services in England

Multiple groups

Multidisciplinary groups of practitioners from all key professions working with children

Action on Neglect educational resource


Availability of support and services in response to early signs of problems will often enable parents to provide required care

Devine 2015 [26, 27]

Health and social care services in England

Multiple groups

Analysis of trends in assessment and referral

Time series

Trend to increased referral but not increased detection of abuse; possible lower threshold for referral

Fifield 2011 [28]

Health and social care in an area of NW England

Multiple groups

Multidisciplinary teams


Pilot integrated model involving safeguarding nurses

Cross-sectional (questionnaires)

Model achieved its aim but efficiency was reduced by lack of an integrated IT system

Haynes 2015 [29]

Health and social care services in England

Multiple groups

Early years practitioners

Health visitors


Schools nurses

Teachers; GPs

Services for children at risk of neglect

Cross-sectional (interviews, focus groups and surveys)

Shortfalls in services identified, all practitioners have a role in identifying and providing early help for children suffering neglect

Kaur 2018 [30]

Five local authorities in England

Multiple groups

Commissioners, commissioning partners, service providers and local practitioner experts

Commissioned services to address child sexual abuse and exploitation (CSA and CSE)


Local authority partnerships are running well-developed CSE initiatives; CSA and harmful sexual behaviour should be targeted with the same rigour as CSE. Health bodies have a role in addressing all three types of abuse.

Spencer 2019 [31]

Dental hospital and local child protection services

Hospital nurse

Paediatric liaison nurse service

Case series with comparison group

Service promotes integrated multidisciplinary working and helps overcome barriers to dentistry’s involvement in safeguarding children.

Webber 2013 [32]

London borough: adult mental health and children’s social care

Multiple groups

Social workers (52%); managers; nurses; psychiatrists; clinical psychologists; and occupational therapists

Joint protocols to support multiagency working

Cross-sectional (survey)

Practitioners perceived that the protocols had increased awareness of the risk factors for safeguarding children.