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Table 3 Service development initiatives spanning health and social care

From: Recognition of risk and prevention in safeguarding of children and young people: a mapping review and component analysis of service development interventions aimed at health and social care professionals

Study Setting Professionals involved Type of service Type of evaluation Findings related to awareness
Bunn 2013 [23] Health and social care services in England Multiple groups
Multidisciplinary teams
Signs of Safety model for risk assessment and safety planning Cross-sectional (survey and interviews) Local authorities using the model in different ways, need for long-term evaluation of outcomes
Care Quality Commission 2016 [24] Health and social care services in England Multiple groups Services for ‘looked after’ children Cross-sectional Examples of good and innovative practice but more needs to be done to identify children at risk of harm
Daniel 2010 [25] Health and social care services in England Multiple groups
Multidisciplinary groups of practitioners from all key professions working with children
Action on Neglect educational resource Cross-sectional Availability of support and services in response to early signs of problems will often enable parents to provide required care
Devine 2015 [26, 27] Health and social care services in England Multiple groups Analysis of trends in assessment and referral Time series Trend to increased referral but not increased detection of abuse; possible lower threshold for referral
Fifield 2011 [28] Health and social care in an area of NW England Multiple groups
Multidisciplinary teams
Pilot integrated model involving safeguarding nurses Cross-sectional (questionnaires) Model achieved its aim but efficiency was reduced by lack of an integrated IT system
Haynes 2015 [29] Health and social care services in England Multiple groups
Early years practitioners
Health visitors
Schools nurses
Teachers; GPs
Services for children at risk of neglect Cross-sectional (interviews, focus groups and surveys) Shortfalls in services identified, all practitioners have a role in identifying and providing early help for children suffering neglect
Kaur 2018 [30] Five local authorities in England Multiple groups
Commissioners, commissioning partners, service providers and local practitioner experts
Commissioned services to address child sexual abuse and exploitation (CSA and CSE) Cross-sectional Local authority partnerships are running well-developed CSE initiatives; CSA and harmful sexual behaviour should be targeted with the same rigour as CSE. Health bodies have a role in addressing all three types of abuse.
Spencer 2019 [31] Dental hospital and local child protection services Hospital nurse Paediatric liaison nurse service Case series with comparison group Service promotes integrated multidisciplinary working and helps overcome barriers to dentistry’s involvement in safeguarding children.
Webber 2013 [32] London borough: adult mental health and children’s social care Multiple groups
Social workers (52%); managers; nurses; psychiatrists; clinical psychologists; and occupational therapists
Joint protocols to support multiagency working Cross-sectional (survey) Practitioners perceived that the protocols had increased awareness of the risk factors for safeguarding children.