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Table 7 Bivariate probit regression on determinants of e-learning utilization (Boostrap SE)

From: Leveraging e-Learning technology to enhance pre-service training for healthcare trainees in Ghana: evidence from a pilot project and pointers to policy reforms

  Dependent variables (indicators of e-learning utilization)
Independent variables Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Indicator 4 Indicator 5 Indicator 6
  Coef. (95 % CI) Coef. (95 % CI) Coef. (95 % CI) Coef. (95 % CI) Coef. (95 % CI) Coef. (95 % CI)
Age 0.03 (-0.05 0.12) 0.01 (-0.06 0.08) − 0.002 (-0.08 0.08) − 0.032 (-0.14 0.073) − 0.12 (-0.34 0.11) 0.13 (-0.20 0.47)
Gender       
Female − 0.49 (-0.82 − 0.15)* 0.13 (-0.18 0.45) − 0.66 (-1.0 − 0.30)* 0.18 (-0.29 0.66) − 0.11 (-1.20. 97) -7.53 (-71 70)
Male 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
School       
SONAM − 0.16 (-0.53 0.22) − 0.22 (-0.54 0.10) 0.06 (-0.35 0.47) − 0.29 (-0.88 0.302) 0.67 (-0.49 1.83) 0.76 (-0.85 2.37)
SAHS 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
Department       
Nursing − 0.13 (-0.72 0.47) − 0.16 (-0.83 0.51) 0.22 (-0.39 0.84) − 0.17 (-3.85 3.51) − 0.93 (-2.77 0.90) -6.42 (-15 15)
Other departments 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
Level of study       
1st year 0.62 (0.27 0.96)* − 0.31 (-0.63 − 0.001)* − 0.89 (-1.1 − 0.46)* 0.10 (-0.48 0.67) 0.80 (-0.37 1.97) -6.81 (-71 70)
2nd year 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
Use of phone for e-learning+       
Yes 1.39 (0.98 1.81)* 0.92 (0.56 1.28)* 0.94 (0.48 1.40)* 0.77 (-1.61 3.15) 0.74 (-0.75 2.23) -5.62 (-82 82)
No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  
Model statistics Bivariate probit Model 1 Bivariate probit Model 2 Bivariate probit Model 3
Log likelihood -380.50 -238.38 -31.56
Chi2(1) 5.77 11.01 0.62
Prob > Chi2 0.0163 0.0009 0.4299
Wald Chi2(12) 151.18 75.39 7.46
Replications 50 50 50
Obs 344 344 39
  1. Field Data (2019); Legend: Indicator 1 (writing IAs); Indicator 2 (downloading learning materials); Indicator 3 (uploading class assignment); Indicator 4 (live chats with faculty); Indicator 5 (live chats with colleague students); indicator 6 (overall frequency of use of e-learning in a month); +Proxy for e-learning savvy