Table 7 Bivariate probit regression on determinants of e-learning utilization (Boostrap SE)

Dependent variables (indicators of e-learning utilization)

Independent variables

Indicator 1

Indicator 2

Indicator 3

Indicator 4

Indicator 5

Indicator 6

Coef. (95 % CI)

Coef. (95 % CI)

Coef. (95 % CI)

Coef. (95 % CI)

Coef. (95 % CI)

Coef. (95 % CI)

Age

0.03 (-0.05 0.12)

0.01 (-0.06 0.08)

− 0.002 (-0.08 0.08)

− 0.032 (-0.14 0.073)

− 0.12 (-0.34 0.11)

0.13 (-0.20 0.47)

Gender

Female

− 0.49 (-0.82 − 0.15)*

0.13 (-0.18 0.45)

− 0.66 (-1.0 − 0.30)*

0.18 (-0.29 0.66)

− 0.11 (-1.20. 97)

-7.53 (-71 70)

Male

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

School

SONAM

− 0.16 (-0.53 0.22)

− 0.22 (-0.54 0.10)

0.06 (-0.35 0.47)

− 0.29 (-0.88 0.302)

0.67 (-0.49 1.83)

0.76 (-0.85 2.37)

SAHS

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Department

Nursing

− 0.13 (-0.72 0.47)

− 0.16 (-0.83 0.51)

0.22 (-0.39 0.84)

− 0.17 (-3.85 3.51)

− 0.93 (-2.77 0.90)

-6.42 (-15 15)

Other departments

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Level of study

1st year

0.62 (0.27 0.96)*

− 0.31 (-0.63 − 0.001)*

− 0.89 (-1.1 − 0.46)*

0.10 (-0.48 0.67)

0.80 (-0.37 1.97)

-6.81 (-71 70)

2nd year

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Use of phone for e-learning+

Yes

1.39 (0.98 1.81)*

0.92 (0.56 1.28)*

0.94 (0.48 1.40)*

0.77 (-1.61 3.15)

0.74 (-0.75 2.23)

-5.62 (-82 82)

No

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Model statistics

Bivariate probit Model 1

Bivariate probit Model 2

Bivariate probit Model 3

Log likelihood

-380.50

-238.38

-31.56

Chi2(1)

5.77

11.01

0.62

Prob > Chi2

0.0163

0.0009

0.4299

Wald Chi2(12)

151.18

75.39

7.46

Replications

50

50

50

Obs

344

344

39

1. Field Data (2019); Legend: Indicator 1 (writing IAs); Indicator 2 (downloading learning materials); Indicator 3 (uploading class assignment); Indicator 4 (live chats with faculty); Indicator 5 (live chats with colleague students); indicator 6 (overall frequency of use of e-learning in a month); +Proxy for e-learning savvy