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Table 3 Ownership/usage of mobile phones and e-Learning facility

From: Leveraging e-Learning technology to enhance pre-service training for healthcare trainees in Ghana: evidence from a pilot project and pointers to policy reforms

  Gender Year of study
Response Male Female Total First year Second year Total
  f(%) f(%) f(%) f(%) f(%) f(%)
Ownership of a phone       
Yes 93 (26) 262 (72) 355 (98) 177 (49) 173 (48) 350 (96)
No    8(2)    13(4)
Ownership of smartphone       
Yes 91 (26) 261 (74) 352 (97) 174 (48) 173 (48) 347 (96)
No    11(3 %)    16(4)
Mostly used phone functions       
Music 28 (8) 100 (28) 128 (35) 66 (18) 59 (16) 125 (34)
Calls 12 (3) 34 (9) 46 (13) 19 (5) 26 (7) 45 (12)
Social media 6 (2) 18 (5) 24 (7) 11 (3) 13 (4) 24 (7)
Academic 12 (3) 28 (8) 40 (11) 24 (7) 16 (4) 40 (11)
Missing system    123(34)    129(36)
Mostly used e-learning functions via mobile phone
Write Interim Assessment       
Yes 56 (15) 132 (36) 188 (52) 61 (17) 122 (34) 183 (51)*
No 41 (11) 134 (37) 175(48) 121 (34) 54 (15) 175(49)
Download learning materials       
Yes 41 (11) 96 (26) 137 (38) 63 (17) 70 (19) 133 (37)
No 56 (15) 179 (49) 226 (62) 119 (33) 106 (30) 225(63)
Upload class assignment       
Yes 27 (7) 89 (25) 116 (32) 35 (10) 79 (22) 114 (32)*
No 70 (19) 177 (49) 247(68) 147 (41) 97 (27) 244(68)
Live chats with colleagues       
Yes 24 (7) 36 (10) 60 (17)* 31 (9) 29 (8) 60 (17)
No 73 (20) 230 (63) 303 (83) 151 (42) 147 (41) 298 (83)
Live chats with lecturer       
Yes 8 (2) 11 (3) 19 (5) 9 (2) 10 (3) 19 (5)
No 89 (25) 255 (70) 344 (95) 173 (48) 166 (46) 339 (95)
Mostly used e-learning functions via computer lab.
Write Interim Assessment       
Yes 86 (24) 212 (58) 298 (82)* 138 (39) 155 (43) 293 (82)*
No 11 (3) 54 (15) 65 (18) 44 (12) 21 (6) 65 (18)
Download learning materials       
Yes 39 (11) 96 (26) 135 (37) 57 (16) 74 (21) 131 (37)*
No 58 (16) 170 (47) 228 (63) 125 (35) 102 (29) 227 (63)
Upload class assignment       
Yes 30 (8) 91 (25) 121 (33) 30 (8) 88 (24) 118 (32)*
No 67 (18) 175 (48) 242 (67) 153 (43) 88 (25) 240 (68)
Live chats with lecturer       
Yes 9 (2) 9 (2) 18 (5)* 9 (2.5) 9 (2.5) 18 (5)
No 88 (24) 257 (71) 345 (95) 173 (48) 167 (47) 340 (95)
Live chats with colleagues       
Yes 22 (6) 39 (11) 61 (17) 30 (8) 31 (9) 61 (17)
No 75 (21) 227 (63) 302 (83) 152 (42) 145 (41) 297 (83)
Devices used for e-learning       
Personal laptop 7 (2) 19 (5) 26 (7) 16 (4) 9 (2) 25 (7)*
Desk-tops in computer lab 55 (15) 176 (48) 231 (64) 128 (35) 101 (28) 229 (63)*
Personal tablet 1 (0.3) 2 (0.5) 3 (0.8) 1 (0.3) 2 (0.5) 3 (0.8)*
Personal mobile phone 30 (8) 45 (12) 75 (21) 22 (6) 52 (14) 74 (20)*
Missing system    28 (8)    32(9)
e-learning utilization       
5–10 times 14 (4) 20 (6) 34 (9) 17 (5) 17 (5) 34 (9)
11–20 times 1 (0) 4 (1) 5 (1) 4 (1) 0 (0) 4 (1)
> 21 times 2 (1) 1 (0) 3 (0.83) 2 (0.55) 1 (0.28) 3 (0.83)
Missing system    321 (88)    322 (89)
e-learning beneficial       
Yes 66 (18) 179 (49) 245 (67) 134 (37) 109 (30) 243 (67)*
No 31 (9) 87 (24) 118 (33) 48 (13) 67 (18) 115 (32)
Missing system       5(1)
Most beneficial feature       
Access to learning materials       
Yes 38 (16) 114 (47) 152 (62) 67 (28) 83 (34) 150 (62)*
No 28 (11) 65 (27) 93 (38) 67 (28) 26 (11) 93(38)
Examination score/grade       
Yes 50 (20) 113 (47) 163 (67) 95 (39) 67 (28) 162 (67)
No 16 (7) 66 (27) 82 (33) 39 (16) 42 (17) 81 (33)
Live chats with lecturer       
Yes 9 (3.5) 9 (3.5) 18 (7)* 8 (3) 10 (4) 18 (7)
No 57 (23) 170 (69) 227 (93) 126 (52) 99 (41) 225 (93)
Live chats with colleagues       
Yes 20 (8) 18 (7) 38 (16)* 21 (9) 17 (7) 38 (16)
No 46 (19) 161 (66) 207 (84) 113 (47) 92 (38) 205 (84)
  1. Field Data (2019); Fisher’s Exact test (p < 0.05)