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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to living arrangement status, the Singapore Chinese Health Study [n (%) and mean (standard deviation)]

From: Emergency hospital admissions among older adults living alone in the community

  Total
(N=16,785)
Living with others (N=15,473) Living alone (N=1,312) p-value
Number of ED admissions, mean (SD) 0.23 (0.69) 0.22 (0.69) 0.28 (0.74) <0.01
Excluding those with no ED admissions 1.56 (1.11) 1.56 (1.12) 1.54 (1.07) 0.80
Inpatient days, mean (SD) 1.51 (7.08) 1.47 (7.07) 2.03 (7.17) <0.01
Excluding those with <1 day 10.78 (16.04) 10.70 (16.30) 11.52 (13.56) 0.46
Inpatient costs (USD), mean (SD) 1,159 (5,480) 1,139 (5,482) 1,390 (5,464) 0.11
Excluding those with no costs 8,009 (12,363) 8,038 (12,518) 7,728 (10,834) 0.71
Age (years), mean (SD) 73.2 (6.40) 73.0 (6.37) 75.0 (6.46) <0.01
Gender, n (%)     <0.01
Men 6,854 (40.8) 6,548 (42.3) 306 (23.3)  
Women 9,931 (59.2) 8,925 (57.7) 1,006 (76.7)  
Education level, n (%)     <0.01
Secondary education and above 6,114 (36.5) 5,702 (36.8) 412 (31.4)  
Primary education 7,509 (44.7) 6,930 (44.8) 579 (44.1)  
No formal education 3,162 (18.8) 2,841 (18.4) 321 (24.5)  
Number of chronic diseases, n (%)    0.30
None 2,697 (16.1) 2,506 (16.2) 191 (14.6)  
One 3,629 (21.6) 3,348 (21.6) 281 (21.4)  
Two 4,304 (25.6) 3,977 (25.7) 327 (24.9)  
Three 3,587 (21.4) 3,288 (21.2) 299 (22.8)  
Four or more 2,568 (15.3) 2,354 (15.3) 214 (16.3)  
Multimorbidity, n (%)     
Without multimorbidity (None or one chronic disease) 6,326 (37.7) 5,854 (37.8) 472 (36.0) 0.18
With multimorbidity (Two or more chronic diseases) 10,459 (62.3) 9,619 (62.2) 840 (64.0)  
Physical function, n (%)     0.04
Good physical function 14,686 (87.5) 13,561 (87.6) 1125 (85.7)  
Poor physical function 2,099 (12.5) 1912 (12.4) 187 (14.3)  
Instrumental limitations (Lawton), n (%)    <0.01
None 12,318 (73.4) 11,295 (73.0) 1,023 (78.0)  
At least one 4,467 (26.6) 4,178 (27.0) 289 (22.0)  
Depression (GDS score ≥5), n (%)    <0.01
Not depressed 12,343 (73.6) 11,458 (74.1) 885 (67.5)  
Depressed 4,442 (26.4) 4,015 (25.9) 427 (32.5)  
Cognitive impairment (MMSE), n (%)    0.79
Not cognitively impaired 14,363 (85.6) 13,244 (85.6) 1,119 (85.3)  
Cognitively impaired 2,422 (14.4) 2,229 (14.4) 193 (14.7)  
Social support, n (%)     <0.01
Adequate social support 15,029 (89.5) 14,014 (90.6) 1,015 (77.4)  
Poor social support 1,756 (10.5) 1,459 (9.4) 297 (22.6)  
Social activity, n (%)     <0.01
Socially active 8,865 (52.8) 8,046 (52.0) 819 (62.4)  
Not socially active 7,920 (47.2) 7,427 (48.0) 493 (37.6)  
Primary care visits, n (%)     
Not in highest decile 14,990 (89.3) 13,808 (89.2) 1,182 (90.1) 0.34
Highest decile 1,795 (10.7) 1,665 (10.8) 130 (9.9)  
Baseline number of ED admissions, mean (SD) 0.16 (0.53) 0.16 (0.53) 0.17 (0.52) 0.69
Excluding those with no ED admissions 1.38 (0.88) 1.39 (0.89) 1.35 (0.78) 0.58
Baseline inpatient days, mean (SD) 0.89 (4.61) 0.89 (4.63) 0.93 (4.33) 0.76
Excluding those with <1 day 8.03 (11.60) 8.05 (11.72) 7.89 (10.27) 0.87
Baseline inpatient costs, mean (SD) 950 (5,233) 954 (5,320) 903 (4,077) 0.74
Excluding those with no costs 8,238 (13,321) 8,317 (13,620) 7,365 (9,396) 0.39
Died within analysis period     0.51
No 16,431 (97.9) 15,150 (97.9) 1,281 (97.6)  
Yes 354 (2.1) 323 (2.1) 31 (2.4)