Skip to main content

Table 5 The impacts of UZMDP on outpatient services utilization and expenditures (DID model)

From: Did the universal zero-markup drug policy lower healthcare expenditures? Evidence from Changde, China

  Outpatient visits Total Drug Diagnosis Laboratory Medical consumables
  Estimatea Se Estimate Se Estimate Se Estimate Se Estimate Se Estimate Se
Intercept -0.073 0.037 1,478.000*** 169.1 -1,254.000*** 80.74 -1,119.000*** 34.22 -627.924*** 21.896 -1,766 1,322
UZMDP adoption 0.094*** 0.018 158.3 93.62 -1,262.000*** 43.04 29.2 15.1 -12.033 11.745 143.500*** 16.05
Year -0.035* 0.015 -23.01 81.56 1,568.000*** 37.48 13.54 14.15 17.507 11.049 -33.500* 15.3
Group 0.041** 0.013 -81.460*** 68.05 630.700*** 31.72 343.000*** 11.07 222.769*** 8.685 217.2 11.34
Age (year) 0.001*** 0.000 8.763*** 1.366 1.802** 0.631 -0.926*** 0.175 -1.691*** 0.132 -0.345* 0.163
Annual income
 0 - 20,000 CNY REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
 20,000 - 40,000 CNY -0.160*** 0.016 -671.100*** 87.76 -200.800*** 40.23 -3.361 10.98 -4.903 8.489 -39.150*** 9.828
 40,000 - 60,000 CNY -0.012 0.018 -848.600*** 96.99 -41.35 44.39 -3.832 11.99 -3.874 9.243 -19.86 10.73
 ≥ 60,000 CNY 0.080*** 0.018 -585.600*** 98.39 119.200** 45.01 -1.436 12.16 -9.578 9.359 11.31 10.83
Gender
 Female REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
 Male 0.037*** 0.008 456.500*** 42.14 26.41 19.4 -49.670*** 5.284 -36.485*** 4.039 -20.150*** 4.827
Type of health insurance
 Residents REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
 Employees 1.310*** 0.029 -435.600*** 111.8 412.400*** 55.39 602.400*** 28.65 276.711*** 16.413 1,250 1,322
 Retired veteran cadres 2.627*** 0.042 17,400.000*** 217.2 10,590.000*** 99.71 -544.5 1,627 -509.056 1,718.69 199.1 4,709
 Regression diagnosticsb 0.000/1.000/0.000 0.013 0.026 0.021 0.019 0.023
  1. aSignificance codes: *** ≤ 0.001, ** ≤ 0.01, * ≤ 0.05
  2. bRegression diagnostics: the p-values of the Over-dispersion test, the Chi-squared test, and the Likelihood ratio test were reported for the healthcare utilization models, while the McFadden’s pseudo R2 was reported for the healthcare expenditures models