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Table 3 Descriptive statistics for the sample patients by period

From: Did the universal zero-markup drug policy lower healthcare expenditures? Evidence from Changde, China

  Inpatient sample (n = 27,246) Outpatient sample (n = 48,282)
Mean (SD) Pre-UZMDP period Post-UZMDP period P-value Pre-UZMDP period Post-UZMDP period P-value
Number of annual visits 2.05 (1.79) 1.91 (1.59) <0.001 3.69 (4.15) 3.82 (4.02) <0.001
Annual aggregate expenditures 16,881.17 (29,010.76) 15,679.98 (28,429.88) 0.001 1,274.00 (4,762.41) 1,377.18 (5,195.01) 0.023
Annual drug expenditures 4,442.70 (7,808.90) 7,879.65 (17,259.80) <0.001 213.24 (396.81) 702.83 (2,939.00) <0.001
Annual diagnosis expenditures 1,447.27 (4,017.63) 1,699.53 (4,984.45) <0.001 47.63 (137.76) 56.73 (153.43) <0.001
Annual laboratory expenditures 968.76 (1,320.86) 1,042.90 (1,408.13) <0.001 21.66 (91.28) 20.18 (83.95) 0.064
Annual medical consumables expenditures 818.19 (3,172.11) 890.41 (3,342.08) 0.067 9.81 (110.17) 15.81 (129.65) <0.001