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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for the sample patients

From: Did the universal zero-markup drug policy lower healthcare expenditures? Evidence from Changde, China

  Inpatient sample (n = 27,246) Outpatient sample (n = 48,282)
  Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max
Dependent variables Number of annual visits 1.982 1.696 1 26.000 3.754 4.089 1 75.000
Annual aggregate expenditures 16,280.572 28,727.542 10 1,191,614.900 1,325.591 4,983.619 0 152,774.210
Annual drug expenditures 6,161.174 13,505.055 0 380,865.680 458.037 2,111.263 0 82,278.790
Annual diagnosis expenditures 1,573.404 4,528.603 0 316,404.000 52.183 145.871 0 3,238.000
Annual laboratory expenditures 1,005.827 1,365.669 0 24,207.000 20.917 87.693 0 2,837.000
Annual medical consumables expenditures 854.300 3,258.344 0 145,023.910 12.812 120.337 0 8,938.000
Independent variable Implementation of UZMDP Yes 19,220 (70.542% ) 36,634 (75.875%)
Implementation of UZMDP No 8,026 (29.458%) 11,648 (24.125%)
Covariates Age (year) 61.392 19.592 0 117 51.568 16.399 1 117
Annual income 0 - 20,000 CNY 3,622 (13.294%) 3,530 (7.311%)
Annual income 20,000 - 40,000 CNY 18,331 (67.280%) 24,168 (50.056%)
Annual income 40,000 - 60,000 CNY 3,591 (13.180%) 10,844 (22.460%)
Annual income ≥ 60,000 CNY 1,702 (6.247%) 9,740 (20.173%)
Gender Female 12,792 (46.950%) 27,688 (57.346%)
Gender Male 14,454 (53.050%) 20,594 (42.654%)
Type of health insurance Residentsa 7,575 (27.802%) 1,853 (3.838%)
Type of health insurance Retired veteran cadresb 257 (0.943%) 740 (1.533%)
Type of health insurance Disabled soldiers 36 (0.132%) 0 (0.000%)
Type of health insurance Employeesa 19,378 (71.122%) 45,689 (94.629%)
  1. aResidents and employees were covered by the Urban and Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance Scheme and the Urban Medical Employee Medical Insurance respectively
  2. bVeteran cadres are CCP (China’s Community Party) members who participated revolutionary wars before 1949