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Table 5 Results of individual sources of evidence from different European countries

From: Telehealth and digital developments in society that persons 75 years and older in European countries have been part of: a scoping review

Study Aim of the study Reported outcomes Facilitators Barriers
Stroetmann and Erkert 1999 [54] To provide the capability for frail older people to live independently The system was rated positively, impact on quality of life of the participants Feeling of being in power over technology.
Easy-to-use remote- control unit.
Possibility for direct help, if needed
The system was not completely reliable.
Technical problems
Marcellini et al. 2000 [43] To examine the use of ticket machines, automatic teller machines and telephone cards by older people The use of these technologies is low. Age is most important predictor factor of using the machines. Younger participants feel that such technology makes life easier Technology makes life easier.
Both social support and lack of social support.
Easy to use technology
Technology makes life more difficult.
Low education
Perle 2012 [51] To compare the habits of older people and young people in using internet Older persons had more specific problems (related to insufficient knowledge of the structure of the web and computer) than younger Experienced older person teach other older people.
User-friendly web-design.
Repeated practice gives skills and confidence.
Knowledge is insufficient.
No appropriate training.
Teachers are too quick.
Difficulties with new systems.
Wessmann et al. 2013 [53] To investigate how older people experience the use of technology No link was found between technology and quality of life. Age was related to the use of technology. There was a clear link between technology usage and level of education High education.
Younger age.
More experience with technology.
Financial benefit
Safety factor
Communication with family and friends
Low education.
No need to use technology.
Expensive.
Need assistants when use it.
Functional limitations due to age
Zsiga et al. 2013 [44] To collect the opinions of the participants about the robot Robot has potential to be useful for older individuals. Communication with the robot should be better. The robot helps to compensate memory loss Gain a companion.
Robot providing physical help in tasks.
Robot sending an alarm signal.
Providing reminder function.
Video connection.
Companionship.
Robot`s camera might not respect their private life.
The design of the device.
It cannot replace people.
Hard to understand.
La Tona et al. 2017 [55] To validate the developed interfaces of robot Good users` feeling towards the interfaces. The voice interference and alarm were found useful, while web pages and touch-screens commands were less appreciated People can be monitored.
Robot makes people more autonomous.
Robot can monitor room and gives vocal feedback
Touchscreens are difficult to use.
Difficulties remembering the commands.
Robots appearance is unnatural
Adamsoo 2018 [52] To find out what are older peoples` main concerns about using smartphones Coping with digital devices is significantly affected by English language skills, high screen sensitivity, small text size, clumsiness of hands. Technology gives a sense of security, contact with family, independence, helps to reach help.
Help from family about how to use the device.
The device is practical
No need for innovations.
Memory difficulties.
Device is too fast, small or expensive.
Inaccurate motor skills.
Little practice