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Table 2 Themes, main sub-themes, and basic concept codes extracted

From: Exploring senior managers’ perceptions of the COVID-19 Crisis in Iran: a qualitative content analysis study

Themes Sub-themes Basic concept codes
Dealing with issues and challenges in the face of COVID-19 disease Structural challenges Lack of medical equipment, Lack of manpower,
Lack of physical space for hospitalization
Cultural challenges Lack of belief in the disease and health protocols, Absence of an authoritative voice, The difficulty in cooperation of city officials and people. Negligence of health protocols
Educational challenges Ineffectiveness of crisis management training courses, Lack of knowledge logistics about COVID-19
COVID-19 complexity Confusion due to unknown disease, Destructive flood. Little monster,The real battlefield, Annoying tsunami in all aspects of socio-economic health
Individual managerial competencies Individual competencies Far-sightedness, Perseverance and seriousness,
Self-sacrifice,Experience and skills, Responsibility, Compassionate work
Managerial competencies Formation of joint teams. Use of collective wisdom, Optimal use of time, Communication management, Predict and act fast
Comprehensive, accountable and Efficient management Comprehensive and accountable management Timely notification and awareness, Utilization of the capabilities of key people in the society, Full-time response, Accompanying people, Use of all available capacities in the society, Mobilization of faculty members and field activities
Efficient management Physical space management in the hospital,
Equipment management, Manpower management,
Timely management with knowledge and updatedness,
Professional and organizational self-efficacy Professional self-efficacy Skills promotion, Feeling empowered
Organizational self-efficacy A reduction in need and dependency. Forming scientific groups. Strengthening the intermediate managers