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Table 2 Overall Accident and Emergency area HealthWISE walkthrough risk assessment findings

From: Organizational factors associated with health worker protection during the COVID-19 pandemic in four provinces of South Africa

Accident and Emergency Department
Prevention Measures Question % of facilities deemed adequate % of facilities requiring improvement Comments
Ventilation Is natural ventilation adequate? 25 75 Poor culture of opening windows,
Is mechanical ventilation adequate 18 82 lack of mechanical ventilation
Administrative measures Are patients social distancing? 58 42 Most of the facilities have provisions for patients social distancing such as markings and queue marshals.
Is staff social distancing? 29 71 Majority of the staff were not practicing social distancing particularly when they were in their workstations, there is a space shortage
Are there markings for social distancing? 51 49 Inside the area there was a considerable number of institutions without markings for social distancing in their accident and emergency area.
Is furniture positioned for social distancing? 25 75 There was no rearrangement of furniture to allow for social distancing mostly due to lack of space.
Are the posters or information leaflets about COVID-19? 25 75 Majority of the facilities have few and poor quality Covid-19 posters and very few facilities have posters that addresses OSH of HWs against Covid-19
Is there an area with water and soap to clean hands? 97 3 With regards to the few facilities that did not have water, it was a municipality issue of a water outage in the whole municipality during the walk through
Are there hand sanitizers in all entrances and exit points? 58 42 Some accident and emergency departments did not have visible hand sanitizers in their entrances or exits. One of the challenges mentioned was to put them in the strategic positions e.g. entrances and exit points
Is waste properly segregated? 92 8  
Are COVID-19 waste management boxes? 72 28  
Personal Protective Equipment Are workers wearing appropriate PPE? 89 11 There were those few health workers that were not wearing appropriate PPEs e.g. cloth masks in accident and emergency
Are workers wearing PPE correctly? 36 64 The surgical mask were sometimes below the nose
Are the staff wearing the same clothes from home, during work and back home? 0 100 Since may carry SARS-CoV-2 fomites on clothing, it is advisable that health workers change clothes to PPE on arrival and change back to their clothing when departing work.
Do you think there was adequate PPE? 94 6 Generally, there was some form of PPE available