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Table 4 Associated factors of OOPE

From: How costly is the first prenatal clinic visit? Analysis of out-of-pocket expenditure in rural Sri Lanka - a country with free maternal health care

Performed Test Variable Groups Tested Mean (SD) OOPE [USD] Median (IQR) OOPE [USD] Test Statistics
Mann-Whitney U Statistics Employment status Employed (n1 = 295) 13.64 (12.63) 14.17 (1.13–19.84) U = 92,939.5
(|z| =0.263)
Housewives (not engage in any income-generating activities) (n2 = 1094) 17.02 (22.16) 14.46 (1.42–23.96)
Kruskal-Wallis H Test Employment sector Government (n1 = 112) 12.61 (11.61) 13.61 (0.85–18.71) x2=4.266
(p = 0.234)
Semi-government (n2 = 15) 10.09 (7.37) 8.5 (5.67–16.44)
Private (n3 = 79) 17.20 (13.94) 17.01 (3.4–24.66)
Other (n4 = 86) 12.56 (13.08) 11.34 (0.91–17.38)
Ethnicity Sinhalese (n1 = 1184) 16.32 (21.18) 14.17 (1.13–22.68) x2=1.926
(p = 0.588)
Tamil (n2 = 6) 12.57 (9.21) 17.01 (9.50–20.98)
Moor (n3 = 124) 13.73 (13.49) 12.47 (0.85–20.98)
Religion Buddhist (n1 = 1172) 16.37 (21.24) 14.17 (1.13–22.68) x2=1.944
(p = 0.584)
Catholic/Christian (n2 = 18) 9.30 (7.50) 12.76 (1.98–14.17)
Hindu (n3 = 4) 17.86 (1.20) 17.86 (17.01–18.71)
Islam (n4 = 126) 13.73 (13.49) 12.47 (0.85–20.98)
Education level Less than primary education (n1 = 10) 30.62 (48.49) 9.78 (1.00–60.24) x2=3.157
(p = 0.532)
Between grade 5 to 11(n3 = 116) 17.45 (13.40) 17.01 (4.12–22.96)
Up to ordinary level (n4 = 641) 16.28 (21.84) 14.17 (1.13–23.39)
Up to advanced level (n5 = 544) 15.23 (19.49) 14.17 (1.13–20.41)
Period of Amenorrhea (at the time of recruitment) < 6 weeks (n1 = 174) 14.85 (14.01) 14.17 (1.13–19.84) x2=1.000
(p = 0.910)
6–8 weeks (n2 = 484) 17.10 (24.15) 14.6 (1.13–21.54)
8–10 weeks (n3 = 372) 16.89 (22.42) 14.74 (1.56–25.23)
10–12 weeks (n4 = 173) 13.41 (13.28) 12.62 (1.13–19.84)
> 12 weeks (n5 = 135) 15.05 (16.25) 14.17 (1.13–20.41)
Spearman Rank Correlation Number of pregnancies* rs = −0.155 (p = 0.000)
Age of the mother rs = 0.028 (p = 0.378)
Mother’s monthly income level rs = 0.012
(p = 0.861)
Monthly household income rs = −0.002 (p = 0.942)
Monthly household expenditure* rs = 0.095 (p = 0.002)
  1. *Reject null hypothesis: no correlation – since the p values are lesser than 0.05