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Table 1 Baseline socioeconomic and treatment characteristics of TB patients in the ACF and PCF cohorts

From: Socio-protective effects of active case finding on catastrophic costs from tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam: a longitudinal patient cost survey

  ACF
(N = 52)
PCF
(N = 46)
All
(N = 98)
P-valueg
Socioeconomic characteristics
  Male, N (%) 33 (63) 29 (63) 62 (63) 0.966
  Age, mean (SD), years 51.8 (15.7) 44.8 (17.9) 48.5 (17.0) 0.063
  Complete secondary school, N (%) 28 (54) 36 (78) 64 (65) 0.011*
  Employed before the episode of TB, N (%) 39 (75) 33 (72) 72 (73) 0.715
Patient income pre-TB, N (%)a
  Poorest 22 (43) 10 (22) 32 (33) 0.003*
  Moderate 18 (35) 14 (31) 32 (33) 0.714
  Wealthiest 13 (25) 19 (42) 32 (33) 0.072
Household income pre-TB, N (%)a
  Poorest 21 (40) 12 (27) 33 (34) 0.155
  Moderate 18 (35) 14 (31) 32 (33) 0.714
  Wealthiest 13 (25) 19 (42) 32 (33) 0.072
  Social Health Insurance, N (%) 36 (69) 42 (91) 78 (80) 0.007*
  Adjusted MPI-TB headcount ratio, mean (SD)b 15.5 (21.8) 7.1 (15.9) 11.6 (19.6) 0.033*
TB diagnosis and treatment
  TB/HIV co-infection, N (%) 0 (0) 3 (7) 3 (3) 0.061
  New TB case, N (%) 35 (67) 44 (96) 79 (81) < 0.001*
  Bacteriologically confirmed, N (%) 52 (100) 43 (93) 95 (97) 0.061
  Time between onset of TB symptoms and treatment initiationc, mean (SD), weeks 9.1 (8.9) 12.7 (18.2) 11.0 (14.5) 0.245
  Hospitalization pre-treatment, N (%) 3 (6) 10 (22) 13 (13) 0.020*
  Hospitalization during treatment, N (%) 3 (6) 6 (13) 9 (9) 0.213
  Number of follow-up visits during treatment, mean (SD) 3.3 (1.0) 3.5 (1.0) 3.4 (1.0) 0.402
Type of service visited, pre-treatment, N (%)d
  Private sector 31/262 (12) 79/366 (22) 110/628 (18) 0.002*
  Non-NTP public sector 34/262 (13) 140/366 (38) 174/628 (28) < 0.001*
  NTPe 110/262 (42) 63/366 (17) 173/628 (28) < 0.001*
  Othersf 87/262 (33) 84/366 (23) 171/628 (27) < 0.004*
Type of service visited, treatment, N (%)d
  Private sector 8/234 (3) 25/273 (9) 33/507 (7) 0.009*
  Non-NTP public sector 75/234 (32) 57/273 (21) 132/507 (26) 0.004*
  NTPe 2/234 (1) 40/273 (15) 42/507 (8) < 0.001*
  Othersf 149/234 (64) 151/273 (55) 300/507 (59) 0.056
  1. aBased on within-sample tertiles of self-reported incomes;
  2. bHeadcount ratio calculated based on a deprivation threshold of 33 % (> 5 deprivations) as adapted from official guidelines on multi-dimensional poverty defined by the Government of Viet Nam with further detail provided in the supplementary material;
  3. cContains nine missing values in the ACF cohort with N = 43;
  4. dTotal number of visits during the pre-treatment (ACF = 262, PCF = 366, Total = 628) and treatment periods (ACF = 234, PCF = 273, Total = 507);
  5. eNTP National TB Control program;
  6. fTraditional healers, herbalists, pharmacists and mobile X-ray events (pre-treatment, only);
  7. gChi-square, Fischer Exact (any cell with n < 5 in the contingency table) for proportions, Wilcoxon Rank Sum for medians, t-test for means
  8. * Statistically significant difference at 95 % confidence level