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Table 5 Characterisation of referral documented in case records of referred pregnant women presenting in emergency situations in Lagos public CEmOC facilities and outcomes

From: Critical comparative analysis of data sources toward understanding referral during pregnancy and childbirth: three perspectives from Nigeria

Background characteristics n = 1038 % 95% CI     
Day of arrival at facility
 Weekend 249 24.0 21.5–26.7     
 Weekday 789 76.0 73.3–78.5     
Period of day that journey commenced
 Morning (3.00 am - 12 noon) 202 19.4 17.2–21.9     
 Afternoon (12 noon - 4.00 pm) 149 14.4 12.4–16.6     
 Evening (4.00 pm – 8.00 pm) 138 13.3 11.4–15.5     
 Night (8.00 pm – 3.00 am) 108 10.4 8.7–12.4     
 Missing 441 42.5 39.5–45.5     
Mode of travel to facility
 Not stated 1016 97.9 96.8–98.6     
 Private car 12 1.2 0.7–2.0     
 Taxi 5 0.5 0.2–1.2     
 Bus 2 0.2 < 0.1–0.8     
 Tricycle 3 0.2 0.1–0.9     
Type of referral institution
 Government hospital 165 15.9 13.8–18.3     
 Government lower-level facility 425 40.9 37.9–4.0     
 Private hospital 238 22.9 20.5–25.6     
 Clinic (Public or Private) 80 7.7 6.1–9.4     
 Traditional Birth Attendant 103 9.9 8.2–11.9     
 Nursing/Maternity home 27 2.7 1.8–3.2     
Number of referrals
 Single 986 95.0 93.5–96.2     
 Multiple 52 5.0 3.8–6.5     
Non-referral stops made en route to facility
 Missing 1012 97.5 96.3–98.2     
 Yes 26 2.5 1.5–3.6     
  Among referred cases Among non-referred cases  
  n = 1038 % 95% CI n = 3143 % 95% CI p-value
Birth by caesarean section 544 52.4 51.2–53.5 1377 43.8 41.3–45.5 p < 0.001
Maternal death 42 4.0 3.5–4.7 140 4.5 3.7–4.9 p = 0.576
Fresh stillbirth 110 13.0 12.1–14.6 145 6.3 5.8–7.7 p < 0.001