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Table 1 Summary of three data sources

From: Critical comparative analysis of data sources toward understanding referral during pregnancy and childbirth: three perspectives from Nigeria

  Data source 1
NDHS 2018
Data source 2
Government CEmOC facilities, Lagos state
Data source 3
UBTH, Benin City, Edo State
Study site National sample of households in Nigeria All public CEmOC hospitals in Lagos State Apex referral hospital in Benin City, Edo State
Source of information Woman’s self-report, recalled up to 5 years before survey Patient hospital records Patient hospital records
Study type Cross-sectional household survey Retrospective census of patient records Retrospective census of patient records
Data collection period 14 August 2018–29 December 2018 14 September 2019–2 March 2020 7 August 2018–21 August 2018
Time of births included in study 1 January 2013–29 December 2018 1 November 2018–31 December 2019 1 December 2017–31 July 2018
Study population Women with a live birth Pregnant women who presented in emergency at maternity wards in one of the 24 government (federal and state)-owned facilities (conception to 7 days postpartum) ‘Un-booked’ pregnant women admitted to the UBTH maternity ward in the perinatal period (23+ weeks gestation to 7 days postpartum)
Perinatal outcome measures used in analysis Birth by caesarean section, Early neonatal death (within 7 days after delivery) Birth by caesarean section, Maternal death, Stillbirth, Early neonatal death Birth by caesarean section, Maternal death, Stillbirth