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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Experiences of frontline healthcare workers and their views about support during COVID-19 and previous pandemics: a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis

Author (year) Country Virus type Sample Study design (method of analysis)
Aghaizu et al. [27] England, Hungary, Germany & Greece SARS-CoV 49 healthcare workers 6 focus groups (thematic analysis)
Al Knawy et al. [42] Saudi Arabia MERS-CoV 28 mixed healthcare workers (9 management decision-makers and 19 healthcare workers) Individual interviews and focus groups (process evaluation and thematic analysis)
Andertun et al. [36] Sierra Leone Ebola 9 (8 nurses and 1 physician) Individual narrative and focus group interviews (qualitative content analysis)
Bensimon et al. [40] Canada SARS-CoV 67 mixed healthcare workers (25 healthcare providers - paramedics, respiratory therapists, social workers, physicians, nurses) Semi-structured interviews (grounded theory although not explicitly stated)
Bergeron et al. [24] Canada SARS-CoV 941 community nurses Open-ended questionnaire (thematic analysis)
Broom et al. [22] Australia Ebola 21 (8 consultants and 13 nurses) Semi-structured interviews (thematic analysis)
Chen et al. [11] China COVID-19 13 medical staff Interview surveys (not stated)
Chiang, et al. [38] Taiwan SARS-CoV 21 nurses Focus groups (thematic analysis)
Chung, et al. [21] Hong Kong SARS-CoV 8 nurses ‘Focused but non-structured talking technique’ (Colaizzi’a (1978) phenomenological method)
Erland & Dahl [28] Sierra Leone Ebola 11 midwives Semi-structured interviews (thematic cross-case analysis)
Fawaz & Samaha [29] Lebanon COVID-19 13 health care providers Semi-structured interviews (thematic content analysis)
Gershon et al. [16] West Africa Ebola 16 health care volunteers Semi-structured interviews (thematic analysis)
Guimard et al. [41] Democratic Republic of Congo Ebola 27 nurses Focus groups (not stated)
Hewlett & Hewlett [50] Uganda and Republic of Congo Ebola Mixed healthcare workers
(Uganda - 6 individual nurses and 2 focus groups of nurses & healthcare workers) (Congo - 4 individual nurses and 2 focus groups of nurses & healthcare workers)
Open-ended and semi-structured interviews and focus groups (not stated)
Honey & Wang [51] New Zealand H1N1 5 ICU Nurses Focus Group (‘Grounded Theory type approach’)
Im et al. [26] South Korea MERS-CoV 8 nurses Interviews (not stated)
Ives et al. [35] UK General influenza pandemic 64 healthcare workers Focus groups and interviews (thematic analysis although not explicitly stated)
Kim [30] South Korea MERS-CoV 12 nurses In-depth interviews (Colaizzi’a (1978) phenomenological method)
Koh et al. [19] Singapore SARS-CoV/H1N1 10 nurses Semi-structured interviews (thematic analysis)
Lam & Hung [34] Hong Kong Swine Flu 10 nurses Semi-structured interviews (content analysis)
Lamb [31] West Africa Ebola 14 mixed healthcare workers (doctors, nurses, allied health professionals and support personnel (health care assistants, biomedical scientists, PPE monitors and drivers)) Semi-structured interviews (grounded theory)
Lau & Chen [52] Hong Kong SARS-CoV 1 (nurse manager) Structured reflection (not stated)
Lee et al. [53] Taiwan SARS-CoV 26 nurses Focus groups, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire (not stated)
Liu & Liehr [33] China SARS-CoV 6 nurses Descriptive exploratory qualitative study (content analysis)
Liu et al. [54] Chinese nurses working in Sierra Leone Ebola 10 nurses Semi-structured interviews (Colaizzi’s seven-step method)
Liu et al. [55] China COVID-19 15 nurses Semi-structured interviews (not stated)
Locsin et al. [56] Uganda Ebola 15 nurses Written narratives (van Manen’s (1990) hermeneutic phenomenological analysis)
McMahon et al. [57] Sierra Leone Ebola Health Volunteers (13 focus group discussions – exact number of participants not stated) Focus groups (adapted framework approach)
Mok et al. [39] Hong Kong SARS-CoV 10 nurses Interviews (content analysis)
Moore et al. [23] Canada SARS-CoV 105 mixed healthcare workers (occupational health staff, infection control practitioners, physicians, clinical nursing staff, allied health professionals (e.g. respiratory therapists, laboratory technicians, physiotherapists), support staff, hospital managers) Focus groups (not stated)
O’Boyle et al. [58] USA Public health emergencies 33 hospital nurses Focus groups (not stated)
O’Sullivan et al. [59] Canada SARS-CoV 100 nurses Focus groups (thematic analysis)
Pearce et al. [60] Australia General influenza pandemic 19 (9 nurses, 10 GPs) Interviews & focus groups (not stated)
Raven et al. [20] Sierra Leone Ebola 25 frontline healthcare workers In depth interviews, semi-structured interviews and observation (framework analysis)
Raven et al. [61] Sierra Leone Ebola 25 mixed healthcare workers In-depth interviews (framework analysis)
Rubin et al. [25] West Africa Ebola 51 mixed healthcare workers (30 Public Health England staff, 21 non-governmental organization (NGO) staff) Telephone interviews (thematic analysis although not explicitly stated)
Sarikaya & Erbaydar [62] Turkey Avian Flu 17 mixed healthcare workers (12 doctors, 3 allied health personnel, 1 midwife, 1 nurse). Interviews (thematic analysis)
Shaw et al. [63] Australia General influenza pandemic 60 GPs Semi-structured interviews (thematic analysis although not explicitly stated)
Shih et al. [17] Taiwan SARS-CoV 200 Nurses Semi structured interviews and open-ended questionnaire (thematic analysis)
Shih et al. [43] Taiwan SARS-CoV 70 nurse leaders Focus group interviews (content analysis)
Smith et al. [32] USA Ebola 37 (any staff member who participated in the care of the EVD patients who were treated at the NBU during 2014.) Semi-structured interviews (not stated)
Sun et al. [37] China COVID-19 20 nurses Semi-structured interviews (Colaizzi’s 7-step method)
Taylor et al. [64] USA General influenza pandemic 46 local health department staff (aimed for half the focus groups to be with frontline local health department staff) Focus groups (thematic analysis)
von Strauss et al. [44] West Africa Ebola 44 nurses Open-ended questionnaire (not stated)
Wong et al. [65] Hong Kong H1N1 10 mixed healthcare workers Semi-structured interviews (thematic analysis)
Yin & Zeng [18] China COVID-19 10 nurses Semi structured interviews (category analysis)