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Table 4 Cost inputs (in USD) in the model

From: Cost-effectiveness of MRI targeted biopsy strategies for diagnosing prostate cancer in Singapore

Item Mean value Unit Source Other remarks
Cost inputs for diagnosis
Urology visit 82 Per visit Public healthcare institutions
PSA test 41 Per test Public healthcare institutions
Systematic biopsy 1108 Per session MOH Casemix and Subvention System (2017)
Saturation biopsy 1563 Per session MOH Casemix and Subvention System (2017)
mpMRI 827 Per session Public healthcare institutions
MRI targeted biopsy (inclusive of mpMRI, MRI-US fusion targeted biopsy and systematic biopsy) 2223 Per session Public healthcare institutions
Cost inputs for management and treatment strategy for localized prostate cancer
Observation 122 Per year Public healthcare institutions 1 visit to the urologist and PSA testing per year
Watchful waiting 163 Per year Public healthcare institutions 1.5 visits to the urologist and PSA testing per year
Radical prostatectomy 17,023 Per episode MOH Casemix and Subvention System (2017) Laparoscopic surgery
Radiotherapy (curative) 18,382 40 treatment sessions Public healthcare institutions External beam only, with image-guided radiotherapy
Androgen deprivation therapy 439 3-monthly Drug Utilisation Data (2017) In curative treatment, androgen deprivation therapy included only Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. The 3-monthly cost of LHRHa was the weighted mean selling price calculated based on all LHRHa (leuprorelin acetate, goserelin, leuprorelin and triptorelin) in Drug Utilization Data (2017).
Cost inputs for management and treatment strategy for metastasis and castration-resistant prostate cancer
Metastatic care - first line therapy 2194 Per year • Survey of local experts
• Drug Utilization Data (2017)
• MOH Casemix and Subvention System (2017)
Metastatic care – second line therapy 18,349 Per year
Treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer 26,458 Per year
Hospice care 202 Per day Assisi Hospice
  1. Abbreviations: MRI magnetic resonance imaging, PSA prostate-specific antigen, US ultrasound, USD US dollar
  2. Note:
  3. 1. After positive mpMRI, MRI targeted biopsy (using MRI-US fusion targeted biopsy) is administered with systematic biopsy. The total cost of MRI targeted biopsy when administered with systematic biopsy (inclusive of mpMRI) is $2223 per session.
  4. 2. The uncertainty of model inputs was explored by simultaneously and randomly sampling the parameters from assigned distributions – beta distribution for health utilities values and multivariate normal distributions using Cholesky decomposition matrix for parameters characterizing disease progression.