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Table 2 Summary of the clinical pharmacist effect on patients’ outcomes

From: The impact of clinical pharmacist services on patient health outcomes in Pakistan: a systematic review

Authors Therapeutic Safety Humanistic Economic
Samtia 2013 [39] FBS*
HBA1C*
Waist Circumference*
Compliance (+)
Khan et al. 2014 [47] DRP
Kaukab et al. [40]   Depression (+)
Saleem et al., 2015 [41] SBP (+)
DBP (+)
Knowledge (+)
Adherence (+)
EQ 5D (−)
EQ-VAS (+)
Amer et al. 2018 [42] SBP (+)
DBP (+)
Knowledge (+)
Adherence (+)
EQ 5D (+)
EQ-VAS (+)
Ali et al. 2019 [43] SVR 12 (+) ADE (+)
DDI (+)
Adherence (+)
Javaid et al. 2019 [44] Waist*
BMI (+)
HbA1C (+)
SBP (+)
DBP (+)
Cholesterol (+)
Triglycerides (+)
Serum creatinine (+)
eGFR (+)
ADE (+)
DDI (+)
Knowledge (+)
Chatha et al. 2020 [45] CD4 Cell Count (+) Adherence (+)
Khokhar et al. 2020 [46] CBC*
RFT*
Blood Glucose*
Electrolytes*
Knowledge (+)
Adherence (+)
  1. *No significant (P > 0.05) difference between intervention and control group, + = significant (P < 0.05) effect in favor of intervention group, − = significant (P < 0.05) effect in favor of control group SVR 12 = sustained virological response at 12 weeks, FBS = Fasting blood sugar, ADE = adverse drug event, CBC=Complete Blood count, RFT = renal function test, BMI = Body mass index, SBP = Systolic blood pressure, DBP = Diastolic blood pressure, eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate