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Table 4 Annual all-cause costs during the follow-up period

From: Incremental burden of comorbid major depressive disorder in patients with type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease: a retrospective claims analysis

Annual all-cause cost, $ Patients with T2D Patients with CVD
All patients
(n = 22,892)
With comorbid MDD
(n = 11,446)
Without comorbid MDD
(n = 11,446)
P value All patients
(n = 28,298)
With comorbid MDD
(n = 14,149)
Without comorbid MDD
(n = 14,149)
P value
Hospitalization costs
 Mean (SD) 1120 (7851) 1453 (9849) 788 (5105) < 0.0001 2322 (10,245) 2865 (12,120) 1778 (7903) < 0.0001
ED costs
 Mean (SD) 878 (3387) 1087 (4321) 669 (2047) < 0.0001 1440 (3711) 1746 (4508) 1134 (2652) < 0.0001
Laboratory costs
 Mean (SD) 700 (2208) 799 (2721) 601 (1527) < 0.0001 818 (2279) 930 (2723) 705 (1716) < 0.0001
Outpatient costs
 Mean (SD) 7116 (21,936) 8283 (20,686) 5950 (23,061) < 0.0001 11,005 (26,441) 12,658 (28,902) 9351 (23,611) < 0.0001
Other costs
 Mean (SD) 1906 (14,082) 2202 (14,950) 1610 (13,150) 0.0015 3383 (16,220) 3989 (18,373) 2778 (13,707) < 0.0001
Medical costs
 Mean (SD) 11,720 (31,188) 13,823 (32,023) 9618 (30,186) < 0.0001 18,968 (38,326) 22,189 (42,317) 15,746 (33,561) < 0.0001
Pharmacy costs
 Mean (SD) 2310 (7602) 2688 (8606) 1932 (6423) < 0.0001 2826 (8409) 3358 (9233) 2295 (7458) < 0.0001
Total costs (pharmacy and medical)
 Mean (SD) 14,031 (33,286) 16,511 (34,415) 11,550 (31,928) < 0.0001 21,794 (40,557) 25,546 (44,796) 18,041 (35,425) < 0.0001
  1. Statistical differences were assessed using t tests. Significant P values (< 0.05) are shown in bold italic.
  2. CVD cardiovascular disease, ED emergency department, MDD major depressive disorder, SD standard deviation, T2D type 2 diabetes