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Table 3 All-Cause healthcare resource utilization during the follow-up period

From: Incremental burden of comorbid major depressive disorder in patients with type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease: a retrospective claims analysis

  Patients with T2D Patients with CVD
With comorbid MDD
(n = 11,446)
Without comorbid MDD
(n = 11,446)
P value With comorbid MDD
(n = 14,149)
Without comorbid MDD
(n = 14,149)
P value
Average follow-up time, months
 Mean (SD) 33.1 (16.7) 32.0 (16.2) < 0.0001 29.7 (14.0) 29.2 (13.8) 0.0016
Proportion of patients requiring, n (%):
 Hospitalizations 2989 (26.1) 1986 (17.4) < 0.0001 6419 (45.4) 4826 (34.1) < 0.0001
 ED visits 6328 (55.3) 4918 (43.0) < 0.0001 9411 (66.5) 7832 (55.4) < 0.0001
 Outpatient visits 11,443 (100.0) 11,429 (99.9) 0.0025 14,146 (100.0) 14,144 (100.0) 0.73
Hospitalizations per patient
 Mean (SD) 0.3 (0.8) 0.1 (0.4) < 0.0001 0.5 (1.2) 0.3 (0.8) < 0.0001
Length of stay, days
 Mean (SD) 1.6 (7.6) 0.7 (3.3) < 0.0001 3.6 (11.3) 1.8 (6.4) < 0.0001
ED visits per patient
 Mean (SD) 0.9 (2.5) 0.6 (1.9) < 0.0001 1.3 (2.8) 0.9 (2.8) < 0.0001
Laboratory visits per patient
 Mean (SD) 3.9 (5.0) 3.2 (3.8) < 0.0001 4.5 (5.6) 3.7 (4.9) < 0.0001
Outpatient visits per patient
 Mean (SD) 21.4 (18.6) 14.4 (13.8) < 0.0001 26.5 (21.3) 18.5 (16.5) < 0.0001
Primary care visits
 Mean (SD) 4.9 (4.2) 4.1 (4.0) < 0.0001 5.0 (4.6) 4.0 (4.1) < 0.0001
Psychiatrist visits
 Mean (SD) 1.1 (3.1) 0.1 (1.1) < 0.0001 1.2 (3.5) 0.1 (0.9) < 0.0001
Behavioral therapy visits
 Mean (SD) 3.3 (8.9) 0.5 (3.0) < 0.0001 3.6 (8.8) 0.6 (3.8) < 0.0001
Prescriptions per patient
 Mean (SD) 6.1 (7.8) 4.4 (6.0) < 0.0001 7.4 (8.6) 5.2 (6.5) < 0.0001
  1. Statistical differences were assessed using t tests. Significant P values (< 0.05) are shown in bold italic.
  2. CVD cardiovascular disease, ED emergency department, MDD major depressive disorder, SD standard deviation, T2D type 2 diabetes