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Table 2 Healthcare resource utilization and annual costs during the baseline period

From: Incremental burden of comorbid major depressive disorder in patients with type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease: a retrospective claims analysis

  Patients with T2D Patients with CVD
  With comorbid MDD
(n = 11,446)
Without comorbid MDD
(n = 11,446)
P value With comorbid MDD
(n = 14,149)
Without comorbid MDD
(n = 14,149)
P value
Baseline average duration of analysis, months
 Mean (SD)   43.1 (28.9) 43.1 (28.0) 0.99 42.8 (29.8) 43.4 (29.6) 0.11
All-cause healthcare resource utilization during the baseline period, n (%)
 Proportion of patients requiring:
  Hospitalizations   1222 (10.7) 872 (7.6) < 0.0001 2250 (15.9) 1606 (11.4) < 0.0001
  ED visits   4368 (38.2) 3890 (34.0) < 0.0001 7121 (50.3) 6431 (45.5) < 0.0001
  Outpatient visits   10,777 (94.2) 10,606 (92.7) < 0.0001 13,887 (98.1) 13,786 (97.4) < 0.0001
Annual all-cause costs during the baseline period, $
 Pharmacy
  Mean (SD)   1859 (6203) 1206 (4265) < 0.0001 2498 (6931) 1775 (7679) < 0.0001
 Medical
  Mean (SD)   6127 (20,069) 4484 (15,874) < 0.0001 8112 (22,857) 6335 (23,142) < 0.0001
 Total
  Mean (SD)   7986 (22,158) 5689 (17,467) < 0.0001 10,610 (25,425) 8110 (25,077) < 0.0001
  1. Statistical differences were assessed using t tests. Significant P values (< 0.05) are shown in bold italic.
  2. CVD cardiovascular disease, ED emergency department, MDD major depressive disorder, SD standard deviation, T2D type 2 diabetes