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Table 3 Odds ratio for healthcare use based on timing

From: Timing of physical therapy for individuals with patellofemoral pain and the influence on healthcare use, costs and recurrence rates: an observational study

  Unadjusted odds ratio with 95% CI Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI
Physical therapy first
 Knee radiograph 0.13 (0.12, 0.15) 0.09 (0.06, 0.14)
 Advanced imaging 0.37 (0.33, 0.41) 0.31 (0.20, 0.46)
 Opioids 0.35 (0.30, 0.42) 0.33 (0.18, 0.59)
 Muscle relaxants 0.37 (0.29, 0.48) 0.37 (0.16, 0.76)
 NSAIDs 0.33 (0.28, 0.38) 0.30 (0.16, 0.52)
 Other analgesics (acetaminophen, etc.) 0.38 (0.29, 0.49) 0.32 (0.13, 0.69)
 Corticosteroid injections 0.37 (0.30, 0.45) 0.26 (0.10, 0.55)
Early physical therapy
 Knee radiograph 0.59 (0.55, 0.65) 0.48 (0.34, 0.66)
 Advanced imaging 0.53 (0.49, 0.57) 0.49 (0.37, 0.65)
 Opioids 0.68 (0.60, 0.76) 0.53 (0.37, 0.75)
 Muscle relaxants 0.80 (0.68, 0.94) 0.61 (0.39, 0.96)
 NSAIDs 0.73 (0.66, 0.81) 0.58 (0.42, 0.81)
 Other analgesics (acetaminophen, etc.) 0.73 (0.61, 0.87) 0.52 (0.32, 0.83)
 Corticosteroid injections 0.68 (0.59, 0.78) 0.46 (0.29, 0.62)
Delayed physical therapy
 Knee radiograph 1.68 (1.55, 1.83) 2.11 (1.53, 2.94)
 Advanced imaging 1.90 (1.75, 2.05) 2.03 (1.54, 2.68)
 Opioids 1.48 (1.32, 1.66) 1.90 (1.33, 2.70)
 Muscle relaxants 1.25 (1.07, 1.47) 1.64 (1.04, 2.58)
 NSAIDs 1.37 (1.24, 1.51) 1.73 (1.23, 2.41)
 Other analgesics (acetaminophen, etc.) 1.36 (1.15, 1.62) 1.94 (1.21, 3.10)
 Corticosteroid injections 1.48 (1.29, 1.70) 2.20 (1.40, 3.46)
No physical therapy
 Knee radiograph 0.61 (0.59, 0.64) 0.52 (0.47, 0.61)
 Advanced imaging 0.55 (0.53, 0.47) 0.55 (0.48, 0.63)
 Opioids 0.55 (0.52, 0.59) 0.55 (0.45, 0.67)
 Muscle relaxants 0.57 (0.52, 0.62) 0.52 (0.41, 0.67)
 NSAIDs 0.53 (0.50, 0.55) 0.54 (0.45, 0.65)
 Other analgesics (acetaminophen, etc.) 0.54 (0.49, 0.60) 0.53 (0.41, 0.69)
 Corticosteroid injections 0.57 (0.53, 0.62) 0.56 (0.43, 0.72)
Exercise therapy
 Knee radiograph 0.37 (0.34, 0.40) 0.30 (0.22, 0.40)
 Advanced imaging 0.47 (0.44, 0.51) 0.48 (0.37, 0.62)
 Opioids 0.59 (0.53, 0.66) 0.55 (0.39, 0.78)
 Muscle relaxants 0.65 (0.56, 0.76) 0.52 (0.34, 0.82)
 NSAIDs 0.62 (0.56, 0.68) 0.58 (0.42, 0.81)
 Other analgesics (acetaminophen, etc.) 0.62 (0.53, 0.74) 0.53 (0.34, 0.84)
 Corticosteroid injections 0.58 (0.51, 0.66) 0.40 (0.26, 0.61)
Passive interventions only
 Knee radiograph 0.37 (0.29, 0.47) 0.42 (0.17, 1.01)
 Advanced imaging 0.46 (0.37, 0.58) 0.82 (0.36, 1.87)
 Opioids 0.69 (0.50, 0.96) 0.57 (0.21, 1.55)
 Muscle relaxants 0.69 (0.45, 1.08) 1.02 (0.32, 3.52)
 NSAIDs 0.67 (0.50, 0.89) 0.69 (0.26, 1.81)
 Other analgesics (acetaminophen, etc.) 0.72 (0.44, 1.18) 0.56 (0.15, 2.05)
 Corticosteroid injections 0.35 (0.24, 0.51) 0.53 (0.12, 2.15)
  1. Covariates were: sex, cardiometabolic syndrome, chronic pain, insomnia, depression, and substance abuse one year prior to diagnosis