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Table 2 Aims of Included Studies

From: The presence and potential impact of psychological safety in the healthcare setting: an evidence synthesis

Assess perceived motivations and barriers to speaking up (one study also looked at how these barriers differed across two cultures) [50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63] 14
Assessment of safety climate / culture / quality / teamwork [64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72] 9
Evaluation of an intervention on speaking up, safety or communication [73,74,75,76,77,78,79] 7
Impact of hierarchy on speaking up [80,81,82,83] 4
To describe the nature of interprofessional work and the factors that influence teamwork [84,85,86,87] 4
Assessment of likely harm and relationship to speaking up [88,89,90,91] 4
Impact of management / leadership on psychological safety [21, 92, 93] 3
Explore perceptions of safety following an interprofessional teamwork intervention [94,95,96] 3
To explore perceptions of own ability to speak up and be heard [97,98,99] 3
Professional challenges and reasons for wanting to leave [100] 1
Test relationship between speaking up and technical team performance [101] 1
Explore the process of learning to speak up [102] 1
Identify ethical errors in caring for elderly patients with dementia [103] 1
Exploring how the organisation values psychological safety of its workers and makes workers feel valued [104] 1
Identify critical non-technical skills for safe and effective teamwork [105] 1
Assess speaking up behaviour and safety climate [106] 1
Describe advocacy in anaesthesia care [107] 1
Explore experiences of supervision from seniors [108] 1
Observed how staff members spoke up [109] 1
Explore experiences of being a nurse manager [110] 1