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Table 4 Data extraction, including studies’ details and methodological limitations

From: Gendered experiences of providing informal care for older people: a systematic review and thematic synthesis

Authors, year, Country Aims of the Study Study Design, Methodology Sampling Method and Sample CASP Tool
Black et al., 2008 USA [49] To explore experiences of suffering in late life. Ethnographic research
Ethnographic interviews and informal conversations.
Sample was selected from data collected for another funded research project: 4 primary at-home caregivers for wives with dementia, aged 80 and above. 6. Cannot tell. The researchers may have not critically examined their role in the research.
10. No clear suggestions for future research
Cahill, 2000 Australia [50] To develop an understanding of the caregiving experiences of men looking after spouses diagnosed with dementia. In depth interviews collected quantitative and qualitative data Non-probability sample of service users: 26 aged husbands who cared at home for their cognitively impaired wives. Satisfied all the criteria
Calasanti & Bowen, 2006 USA [51] To explore the caregiving provided by spouses of persons with Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementias Qualitative, gender-sensitive, constructivist approach. Semi-structured interviews Sample recruited from formal agencies, churches, and snowball sampling: 22 primary spousal caregivers for non-institutionalised persons with dementia. Satisfied all the criteria.
Calasanti & King, 2007 USA [52] To explore husbands’ experiences of caring for wives with Alzheimer’s disease. Qualitative, constructivist approach to analyse in-depth interviews Sample recruited from formal agencies and support groups: 9 caregiving husbands. 7. No reference to ethical considerations
Drummond et al., 2013 Canada [53] To understand the meaning older women caregivers attribute to their experience of sexuality and intimacy. Phenomenology approach.
Interviews.
Recruitment strategy focused on identifying older caregiving women spouses: 6 community residing women. 6. Cannot tell. The researchers may have not critically examined their role in the research.
Eriksson et al., 2013 Sweden [54] To explore the gender aspects of long-term caregiving In depth interview Participants recruited from an assessment unit at a hospital in South–East Sweden: 12 participants. Satisfied all the criteria
Flores et al., 2009 USA [55] To explore the nuances of an ethics of care that constitute caregiving experiences. Case study.
Semi structured qualitative interview
The case study is drawn from a sample of Latina participants in a larger qualitative study: Ana a primary caregiver to her mother. 7. No reference to ethical considerations
Hashizume, 2010 Japan [56] To explore the experiences of Japanese working women caregivers as they cared for the elderly family member. Grounded-theory methodology.
Open ended interviews around specific topics
Recruitment of women caregivers who met specified criteria: 11 women caregivers including 6 daughters and 5 daughters-in-law. 6. Cannot tell. The researchers may have not critically examined their role in the research.
Hayes et al., 2009 USA [57] To examine how caregivers of spouses diagnosed with ADRDs perceive identity changes in themselves. Social constructionist, symbolic interactionist perspective.
Intensive interviews.
Spousal caregivers were recruited from support groups: 13 men and 15 women whose spouses had ADRD. 7. Cannot tell. Refers only that the participants agreed to be interviewed
Hayes et al., 2010 USA [58] To analyse the process of redefining marital relations within the context of couples dealing with Alzheimer’s disease Intensive qualitative interviewing approach. Caregivers were selected into the study that met specified criteria: 13 caregiver husbands and 15 caregiver wives. 6. Cannot tell. The researchers may have not critically examined their role in the research.
Hepburn et al., 2002 USA [59] To identify themes in caregivers’ discourse and reports on patterns among caregivers. Constant comparative analysis was used to code open-ended interviews Sample recruited as part of a larger intervention study of family caregivers of community-dwelling persons with dementia: 132 spouses. Satisfied all the criteria
Holroyd, 2005 China [60] To address the dilemmas of elderly Chinese women as spousal caregivers in Hong Kong. In-depth ethnographic approach.
Data interpretation via symbolic interactionism.
Convenience sample: 20 elderly wives who were caregivers from Hong Kong. Satisfied all the criteria
Jones et al., 2002 USA [61] To describe the process of caring for elderly parents by Asian American women. Grounded theory methodology.
Interviews.
Purposive sample: 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American; aged 38–68 yrs) caring for elderly parents.
Subsequent theoretical sample
3. Cannot tell. The researcher did not clearly justify the research design.
6. Cannot tell. The researchers may have not critically examined their role in the research.
Kluczyńska, 2015 Poland [62] To describe how older men who are caring for their wives construct their masculinity in the face of their new role and tasks. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews.
Thematic analysis coding as a mode of interpretation.
Sample recruited via a local clinic in Poznan: 10 men between 64 and 90 years old who are the primary carers for their wives. 3. Cannot tell. The researcher did not clearly justify the research design.
5. Cannot tell. The researcher did not make the methods explicit, no use of a topic guide.
Kramer, 2005 USA [63] To illuminate the relationship between gender and burden. Descriptive qualitative approach and critical poststructuralist feminist approach. Participants recruited via community care facilities based on specified criteria: 36 adult women caring for highly dependent adults 6. Cannot tell. The researchers may have not critically examined their role in the research.
Mendez-Luck et al., 2008 Mexico [64] To examine how women in a Mexico City suburb conceptualise the construct of burden. Phenomenological approach.
Semi-structured interviews
Combination of snowball and purposive sampling methods: 41 women. Satisfied all the criteria
Paillard-Borg & Strömberg, 2014 Japan [65] To describe the observations and thoughts of one Japanese woman’s experience of living with her elderly parents. Case study.
Open-ended interview was performed and analysed using content analysis.
Case sampling: Miho, a Japanese female caregiver Satisfied all the criteria
Remennick, 2001 Israel [66] To explore the experiences of women caregivers with multiple roles. Qualitative study.
Open ended interviews
Women were recruited based on specified criteria: 42 women who lived with the older individual. 6. Cannot tell. The researchers may have not critically examined their role in the research.
Ribeiro et al., 2007 Portugal [67] To report findings on men’s caregiving experiences. Semi-structured interviews.
Open coding and content analysis
Snowball sampling: 53 elderly men who were caring for chronically ill wives. Satisfied all the criteria
Silverman, 2013 Canada [68] To examine the lived reality of women caregivers. Microethnographic approach.
Field research, observations.
Recruitment of caregivers who fit the project’s criteria: 5 caregivers’ dyads. Satisfied all the criteria
Valadez et al., 2005 USA [69] To examine Mexican American caregivers’ lived caregiving experiences. Exploratory study.
Semi structured interviews.
Recruitment from Adult Day Care Centers: 15 Mexican American participants. Satisfied all the criteria