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Table 3 Descriptive statistics for diabetic patients

From: Health service underutilization and its associated factors for chronic diseases patients in poverty-stricken areas in China: a multilevel analysis

Characteristics Total (N = 955) Health service underutilization Statistics P-value
Yes (N = 142) No (N = 813)
Predisposing factors
 Age (years) 63.26 (8.84) 61.58 (7.73) 63.55 (9.00) 2.453 0.014
 Gender      
  Female 643 (67.33) 102 (71.83) 541 (66.54) 1.536 0.215
  Male 312 (32.67) 40 (28.17) 272 (33.46)   
 Ethnicity     1.557 0.212
  Han 706 (73.93) 111 (78.17) 595 (73.19)   
  Minority 249 (26.07) 31 (21.83) 218 (26.81)   
 Marital status     0.000 0.996
  Other 175 (18.32) 26 (18.31) 149 (18.33)   
  Married 780 (81.68) 116 (81.69) 664 (81.67)   
 Education attainment     0.025 0.980
  Primary school or below 559 (58.60) 84 (59.15) 475 (58.50)   
  Junior high school 290 (30.40) 41 (28.87) 249 (30.67)   
  Senior high school or above 105 (11.01) 17 (11.97) 88 (10.84)   
Enabling factors
 Income level     2.852 0.004
  Low 351 (36.75) 69 (48.59) 282 (34.69)   
  Middle 206 (21.57) 25 (17.61) 181 (22.26)   
  High 398 (41.68) 48 (33.80) 350 (43.05)   
 Medical insurance     10.614 0.014
  No 2 (0.21) 1 (0.70) 1 (0.12)   
  Others 11 (1.15) 5 (3.52) 6 (0.74)   
  URRMI 913 (95.60) 133 (93.66) 780 (95.94)   
  UEBMI 29 (3.04) 3 (2.11) 26 (3.20)   
 Regular source of care     10.028 0.002
  No 150 (15.72) 35 (24.65) 115 (14.16)   
  Yes 804 (84.28) 107 (75.35) 697 (85.84)   
 Distance to the nearest health facility     −0.009 0.993
  Less than one kilometer 577 (60.42) 85 (59.86) 492 (60.52)   
  1-5 km 339 (35.50) 53 (37.32) 286 (35.18)   
  More than 5 km 39 (4.08) 4 (2.82) 35 (4.31)   
Need factors
 Self-reported health score 53.16 (22.79) 46.73 (20.53) 54.29 (22.99) 3.671 < 0.001