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Table 7 CERQual Evidence Profile

From: Barriers and facilitators experienced by osteopaths in implementing a biopsychosocial (BPS) framework of care when managing people with musculoskeletal pain – a mixed methods systematic review

Summary of review Finding Studies Contributing to the review finding Methodological Limitations Coherence Adequacy Relevance CERQual assessment of confidence in the evidence Explanation of CERQual assessment
Barriers for utilizing the BPS model in clinical practice: osteopaths working in Europe identified key barriers in utilising the BPS model that included lack of education and/or diagnostic tools. Some osteopaths perceived the BPS model as a threat to their professional identity. (Abrosimoff & Rajendran, 2020; Delion & Draper-Rodi, 2018; Formica et al., 2018) Minor concerns No or very minor concerns Moderate concerns (only threes studies offering thin data). Moderate concerns (partial relevance as studies were done only in Europe and varied settings including regulation). Low confidence Three studies with no methodological limitations, no concerns about coherence, limited, thin data from 2 countries, moderate concerns about adequacy and relevance.
Enablers for utilizing BPS model in clinical practice: factors that may enable/facilitate the use of BPS model by osteopaths include acknowledging psychosocial factors, management strategies and continuous professional development courses. (Abrosimoff & Rajendran, 2020; Delion & Draper-Rodi, 2018) Minor concerns Minor concerns (some concerns about fit between the data from primary studies and the review finding). Moderate concerns (only two studies offering thin data). Moderate concerns (partial relevance as studies were done only in Europe and varied settings including regulation). Low confidence Two studies with minor methodological limitations, minor concern about coherence, limited, thin data from 2 countries, moderate concerns about adequacy and relevance.