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Table 4 Risk of Bias of Included Studies (CASP and MMAT scores)

From: Barriers and facilitators experienced by osteopaths in implementing a biopsychosocial (BPS) framework of care when managing people with musculoskeletal pain – a mixed methods systematic review

Qualitative strand Draper-Rodi (2016) [33] MacDonald et al. (2018) [15] Bar-Zaccay et al. (2018) [14]
1.1. Are the sources of qualitative data (archives, documents, informants, observations) relevant to address the research question(objective)? Yes N/A N/A
1.2. Is the process for analysing qualitative data relevant to address the research question (objective)? Yes N/A N/A
1.3. Is appropriate consideration given to how findings relate to the context, e.g., the setting, in which the data were collected? Yes N/A N/A
1.4. Is appropriate consideration given to how findings relate to researchers’ influence, e.g., through their interactions with participants? Yes N/A N/A
Quantitative strand
4.1. Is the sampling strategy relevant to address the quantitative research question (quantitative aspect of the mixed methods question)? E.g., consider whether (a) the source of sample is relevant to the population under study; (b) when appropriate, there is a standard procedure for sampling, and the sample size is justified (using power calculation for instance). Partially yes (no power calculation) Yes Yes
4.2. Is the sample representative of the population understudy? E.g., consider whether (a) inclusion and exclusion criteria are explained; and (b) reasons why certain eligible individuals chose not to participate are explained. Yes Yes Yes
4.3. Are measurements appropriate (clear origin, or validity known, or standard instrument)? E.g., consider whether (a) the variables are clearly defined and accurately measured; (b) measurements are justified and appropriate for answering the research question; and (c) the measurements reflect what they are supposed to measure. Yes Yes Yes
4.4. Is there an acceptable response rate (60% or above)? The response rate is not pertinent for case series and case report. E.g., there is no expectation that a case series would include all patients in a similar situation. No (response rate – 8%) No No
Mixed methods
5.1. Is the mixed methods research design relevant to address the qualitative and quantitative research questions (or objectives), or thequalitative and quantitative aspects of the mixed methods question (or objective)? Yes N/A N/A
5.2. Is the integration of qualitative and quantitative data (or results*) relevant to address the research question (objective)? Yes N/A N/A
5.3. Is appropriate consideration given to the limitations associated with this integration, e.g., the divergence of qualitative and quantitativedata (or results*) in a triangulation design? Yes N/A N/A
Total score 9/11 (82%) 3/4 (75%) 3/4 (75%)