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Table 4 Independent demographic and health services-related factors associated with patient satisfaction

From: Patients satisfaction with healthcare delivery in Ghana

Variable Reliability P-value Responsiveness P-value Tangibles P-value Total satisfaction P-value
Age
 15–25 Ref        
 26–35 1.09 (0.88–1.36) 0.438 1.43 (1.07–1.91) 0.015 1.03 (0.62–1.70) 0.907 1.10 (0.88–1.38) 0.381
 36–49 1.36 (1.07–1.72) 0.011 1.44 (1.04–2.00) 0.028 1.84 (1.01–3.37) 0.046 1.36 (1.08–1.71) 0.008
Highest level of education
 No formal education Ref        
 Basic education 0.90 (0.66–1.22) 0.492 1.19 (0.76–1.87) 0.452 1.16 (0.50–2.72) 0.730 0.84 (0.62–1.15) 0.278
 Secondary 0.77 (0.59–1.00) 0.051 1.21 (0.82–1.78) 0.342 0.49 (0.22–1.11) 0.086 0.76 (0.58–0.99) 0.044
 Tertiary 0.78 (0.51–1.25) 0.320 1.29 (0.71–2.37) 0.404 0.45 (0.14–1.42) 0.175 0.80 (0.52–1.23) 0.304
Religion
 African traditional Ref        
 Islam 1.20 (0.73–1.97) 0.474 0.30 (0.14–0.66) 0.003 1.91 (0.38–9.59) 0.430 0.95 (0.56–1.59) 0.831
 Christian 096 (0.62–1.48) 0.848 0.40 (0.19–0.83) 0.014 0.90 (0.22–3.68) 0.886 0.82 (0.51–1.32) 0.417
Region
 Greater Accra Ref        
 Western 3.14 (1.86–5.30) < 0.001 2.25 (1.22–4.14) 0.009 1.60 (0.71–3.62) 0.260 2.96 (1.81–4.86) < 0.001
 Central 1.41 (0.86–2.31) 0.168 1.41 (0.76–2.62) 0.268 2.23 (0.90–5.49) 0.081 1.23 (0.77–1.98) 0.388
 Volta 1.10 (0.67–1.80) 0.700 2.19 (1.20–4.00) 0.011 1.28 (0.51–3.22) 0.605 1.14 (0.69–1.88) 0.600
 Eastern 0.88 (0.56–1.39) 0.581 2.46 (1.37–4.40) 0.003 1.19 (0.50–2.81) 0.696 0.94 (0.58–1.51) 0.791
 Ashanti 0.78 (0.51–1.18) 0.237 2.64 (1.48–4.70) 0.001 2.56 (1.04–6.31) 0.041 0.72 (0.48–1.08) 0.114
 Brong Ahafo 0.83 (0.53–1.30) 0.422 3.29 (1.69–6.38) < 0.001 3.12 (1.02–9.52) 0.045 0.78 (0.51–1.21) 0.266
 Northern 0.76 (0.45–1.29) 0.317 0.56 (0.29–1.08) 0.082 0.26 (0.09–0.79) 0.017 0.74 (0.44–1.23) 0.246
 Upper East 1.44 (0.86–2.41) 0.163 4.96 (2.45–10.05) < 0.001 1.29 (0.32–5.25) 0.720 1.24 (0.76–2.00) 0.392
 Upper West 0.79 (0.36–1.75) 0.559 4.99 (2.19–11.33) < 0.001 1.03 (0.28–3.81) 0.965 0.69 (0.35–1.35) 0.277
Place of residence
 Urban Ref   Ref      
 Rural 1.15 (0.86–1.54) 0.341 1.88 (1.30–2.72) 0.001 1.30 (0.77–2.19) 0.322 1.38 (1.05–1.81) 0.020
Employment
 Unemployed Ref        
 Employed 0.96 (0.77–1.21) 0.730 0.89 (0.67–1.18) 0.424 0.76 (0.41–1.40) 0.372 0.91 (0.71–1.15) 0.414
Wealth index
 Poorest Ref        
 Poorer 0.83 (0.58–1.20) 0.325 1.12 (0.78–1.60) 0.552 0.56 (0.21–1.45) 0.231 0.89 (0.61–1.30) 0.547
 Middle 1.18 (0.83–1.70) 0.355 1.10 (0.69–1.76) 0.696 0.62 (0.24–1.61) 0.321 1.15 (0.81–1.64) 0.429
 Richer 1.17 (0.74–1.82) 0.502 0.96 (0.58–1.59) 0.874 0.72 (0.23–2.22) 0.566 1.22 (0.79–1.88) 0.375
 Richest 0.96 (0.57–1.63) 0.892 0.87 (0.50–1.53) 0.633 0.70 (0.19–2.60) 0.595 1.07 (0.65–1.75) 0.790
Payment option used
 Cash Ref        
 Insurance 0.99 (0.79–1.26) 0.957 0.71 (0.51–0.99) 0.049 2.00 (1.25–3.18) 0.004 0.98 (0.77–1.23) 0.838
 Cash & Insurance 0.95 (0.65–1.38) 0.768 0.55 (0.33–0.93) 0.026 2.78 (1.07–7.25) 0.036 1.06 (0.73–1.53) 0.761
Service type
 Outpatient Ref        
 Inpatient 1.04 (0.81–1.34) 0.743 1.06 (0.75–1.49) 0.741 0.75 (0.41–1.37) 0.347 1.00 (0.79–1.27) 0.993
Type of facility
 Public Ref        
 Private 1.08 (0.83–1.39) 0.567 1.08 (0.79–1.48) 0.617 2.02 (1.13–3.63) 0.019 1.04 (0.80–1.33) 0.785
Ease of getting care
 Not easy Ref        
 Easy 4.20 (2.76–6.40) < 0.001 2.50 (1.68–3.72) < 0.001 2.64 (1.38–5.03) 0.003 3.25 (2.22–4.75) < 0.001
Provider friendliness
 Not friendly Ref        
 Friendly 2.53 (1.68–3.82) < 0.001 15.45 (9.72–24.56) < 0.001 3.76 (2.10–6.72) < 0.001 4.48 (2.95–6.81) < 0.001
Opening hours
 Poor Ref        
 Fair 7.11 (3.11–16.23) < 0.001 2.61 (1.40–4.88) 0.003 3.20 (1.27–8.03) 0.013 4.15 (2.078–8.31) < 0.001
 Good 12.53 (5.66–27.72) < 0.001 5.78 (3.35–9.97) < 0.001 5.38 (2.67–10.84) < 0.001 6.22 (3.27–11.82) < 0.001
  1. p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant in the final