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Table 3 Regression coefficients of the differences in healthcare expenditure by educational level (low vs. high) and income (1st vs. 5th quintile) among participants aged 25–44 years, 45–64 years, and 65–79 years

From: Socioeconomic differences in healthcare expenditure and utilization in The Netherlands

  Participants aged 25–44 years Participants aged 45–64 years Participants aged 65–79 years Total study population
  Educational level
Low vs. high
Income
1st vs. 5th quintile
Educational level
Low vs. high
Income
1st vs. 5th quintile
Educational level
Low vs. high
Income
1st vs. 5th quintile
Educational level
Low vs. high
Income
1st vs. 5th quintile
Model OR / RR + 95 % CI OR / RR + 95 % CI OR / RR + 95 % CI OR / RR + 95 % CI OR / RR + 95 % CI OR / RR + 95 % CI OR / RR + 95 % CI OR / RR + 95 % CI
Total healthcare expenditure (amount among those with expenditure) 1 1.82 1.46 2.27 1.96 1.72 2.23 2.47 2.14 2.86 2.51 2.25 2.80 1.60 1.39 1.84 1.56 1.36 1.77 2.10 1.91 2.30 2.06 1.92 2.21
2 1.17 0.95 1.44 1.10 0.97 1.24 1.08 0.95 1.24 1.16 1.05 1.29 1.09 0.96 1.24 1.07 0.95 1.21 1.14 1.04 1.24 1.13 1.06 1.21
General practitioner care (amount among those with expenditure) 1 1.43 1.28 1.61 1.48 1.39 1.59 1.61 1.49 1.74 1.52 1.43 1.61 1.18 1.08 1.29 1.23 1.13 1.33 1.44 1.37 1.51 1.44 1.38 1.49
2 1.19 1.06 1.33 1.22 1.14 1.31 1.16 1.07 1.25 1.14 1.08 1.21 0.99 0.91 1.08 1.04 0.97 1.13 1.12 1.06 1.17 1.14 1.10 1.19
Hospital care (yes) 1 1.72 1.30 2.28 1.52 1.29 1.79 2.00 1.62 2.48 1.28 1.10 1.49 1.77 1.28 2.44 1.15 0.87 1.51 1.87 1.62 2.17 1.35 1.22 1.50
2 1.27 0.95 1.71 1.12 0.95 1.33 1.16 0.93 1.46 0.74 0.63 0.87 NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.21 1.03 1.41 0.88 0.78 0.98
Hospital care (amount among those with expenditure) 1 1.26 0.97 1.62 1.10 0.94 1.30 1.86 1.58 2.19 1.94 1.70 2.22 1.49 1.26 1.75 1.34 1.14 1.56 1.71 1.53 1.90 1.51 1.38 1.65
2 0.97 0.75 1.26 0.80 0.68 0.95 1.00 0.85 1.18 1.10 0.96 1.26 1.06 0.90 1.25 1.01 0.87 1.17 1.06 0.96 1.17 0.98 0.90 1.06
Mental health care (yes) 1 1.76 1.10 2.82 3.11 2.24 4.32 1.79 1.21 2.65 3.12 2.22 4.39 0.75 0.37 1.54 1.37 0.70 2.69 1.60 1.21 2.11 2.86 2.29 3.58
2 0.88 0.53 1.46 1.58 1.11 2.25 0.64 0.41 0.99 1.29 0.89 1.86 0.44 0.20 0.93 0.84 0.41 1.71 0.69 0.51 0.94 1.35 1.06 1.71
Mental health care (amount among those with expenditure) 1 1.32 0.81 2.17 1.35 0.96 1.89 1.68 1.14 2.48 NA NA NA 1.33 0.56 3.14 1.64 0.69 3.87 1.41 1.06 1.88 1.83 1.45 2.31
2 1.14 0.72 1.79 1.18 0.86 1.64 1.29 0.86 1.91 NA NA NA 0.89 0.37 2.15 0.99 0.37 2.63 1.13 0.85 1.49 1.49 1.19 1.88
  1. CI confidence interval; NA not applicable (due to no or limited number of cases); OR odds ratio; RR rate ratio. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, interaction between age and sex, and year of participation in the health survey. Model 2: model 1 + adjusted for general health, physical limitations, and mental health. ORs apply to part 1 outcomes (probability of healthcare expenditure) calculated using logistic regression, RRs apply to part 2 outcomes (amount of healthcare expenditure among those who used healthcare resources) calculated using GLM with log link function and gamma distribution. Bold indicates p < 0.05