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Table 2 Themes and sub-themes in detection and discussion of (subthreshold) depression and anxiety

From: Barriers and facilitators to recognize and discuss depression and anxiety experienced by adults with vision impairment or blindness: a qualitative study

Domain Theme Sub-theme
1. Predisposing factors Coping • Coping strategies (+, -)
• Internal locus of control (+, -)
• Personality traits (+, -)
2. Environmental factors Acquired care • Receive care from low vision service organization while experiencing symptoms (+, -)
• Experiences with low vision service organization (+, -)
Social inclusion • Stigma related to VI (-)
• Feelings of inequality (-)
3. Awareness related factors Risk perception • Impact VI on mental health (+, -)
• Self-assessed severity of symptoms (+, -)
• Need for help (+, -)
Detection • Recognition of psychological complaints or changes in behavior (+)
• Focus on VI (-)
• Misattribution of symptoms of depression or anxiety (-)
Knowledge • Knowledge of mental health interventions (-)
• Limited information collection due to VI (-)
4. Motivational factors Attitude • Attitude towards discussion (+, -)
• (Dis)advantages of discussion (+, -)
Willingness to discuss • VI complicates discussion(-)
• Self-confidence on discussion (+, -)
5. Social support system Informal emotional support • Recognition and discussion by social support system (+, -)
• Guidance and encouragement from social support system (+, -)
• Indifference and incomprehension impact VI on mental health (-)
Network size • Number of social contacts (-)
6. Healthcare provider’s role Focus of healthcare provider • Focus on practical rehabilitation VI (-)
• Attention impact VI on mental health (+, -)
Formal support • Referral to healthcare provider with knowledge VI (+)
• Discuss mental health/current symptoms (+, -)
• Help-seeking (+, -)
• Transfer knowledge (-)
Expertise of healthcare provider • Knowledge healthcare provider (-)
• Skills healthcare provider (-)
• Attitude healthcare provider (-)
• Relationship with adult with VI (+)
  1. VI Visual Impairment
  2. + facilitator, - barrier