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Table 3 Data Use Intervention Categories

From: A realist systematic review of evidence from low- and middle-income countries of interventions to improve immunization data use

Intervention category Articles on immunization data use (n) Articles on data use in other health sectors (n) Total number of articles (n) Description References from peer-reviewed literature References from grey literature
Electronic immunization registries 14 0 14 Store data on administered vaccine doses in computerized, population-based databases [20,21,22,23,24] [25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33]
Logistics management information systems 8 0 8 Collect data on vaccine inventory and demand to support managing the vaccine supply chain; often computerized [34] [35,36,37,38,39,40,41]
Health management information systems 0 6 6 Store aggregated health data and can facilitate converting data into useful information for decision-making; we focused on computerized HMIS [1, 42,43,44,45,46]  
Decision support systems 9 4 13 Help users interpret data and use data for decision-making; include computerized decision support systems and noncomputerized tools (e.g., monitoring charts, dashboards, and home-based records) [47,48,49,50,51,52,53] [54,55,56,57,58,59]
Data quality assessments 8 3 12 Range from interventions that train program managers in how to routinely audit data quality to external audits of data quality [60,61,62,63,64,65] [66,67,68,69,70,71]
Data review meetings 2 1 3 Employ adult learning techniques (e.g., peer learning and knowledge-sharing) to build skills in data analysis [72, 73] [74]
Peer learning networks 6 5 11 Connect health workers so they can share information and discuss data; increasingly accessed through social networking platforms online [75,76,77] [78,79,80,81,82,83,84,85]
Supportive supervision, mentorship, and on-the-job training 4 4 8 Build health workers’ skills, foster performance and motivation, and identify and resolve problems [86,87,88,89,90,91] [92, 93]
Training 1 5 6 Strengthen the capacity of health workers responsible for managing and using data at all levels of the health system through workshops, classroom-based learning, and hands-on approaches [94,95,96,97] [98, 99]
mHealth 7 1 8 Mobile-based or wireless technologies used to support health service delivery [100,101,102,103] [104,105,106,107]
Other/multicomponent interventions 7 6 13 Leverage many of the intervention categories but lack a clearly identifiable primary intervention type [2, 108,109,110,111] [112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119]
TOTALa 66 36 102    
  1. aA total of 102 articles were included in the review, including 49 articles from peer-reviewed literature and 53 articles from grey literature.