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Table 2 Risk of bias assessments for individual randomized studies according to standardized criteria (Risk of Bias tool [5, 12]). A minus sign (-) indicates a high risk of bias assessment, and a plus sign (+) indicates a low risk of bias assessment for the randomized studies. A question mark (?) indicates some concerns of bias due to insufficient documentation or information. No symbol indicates the type of bias could not be assessed

From: Nocturnal digital surveillance in aged populations and its effects on health, welfare and social care provision: a systematic review

Randomized studies
(RoB tool assessment criteria)
Holmes et al., 2007 [7] Rowe et al., 2010 [8] Rowe et al., 2009 [9]
Random sequence generation - -b -c
Allocation concealment - - -
Blinding of participants / personnel - - -
Blinding of outcome assessment - - -
Incomplete outcome data - - +
Selective reporting + + +
Other bias ?a   
Comments a staff showed “resistance” to the intervention and altering methods of care b 8 participants were exempted from randomization according to preference or previous study participation c 8 participants were exempted from randomization according to preference or previous study participation