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Table 1 Summary of characteristics for studies included in the review.a

From: Nocturnal digital surveillance in aged populations and its effects on health, welfare and social care provision: a systematic review

Country Author, year, and title Intervention Participantsb Design Duration of intervention Comparator
USA Holmes, D et al., 2007, “An evaluation of a monitoring system intervention: falls, injuries and affect in nursing homes” [7] Surveillance package including bed exit sensor and bathroom/bedroom exit monitors 92 primarily female, white and widowed care institution residents, age 87 (7.5) Variant of cluster randomized trial 15 months On-location visits
USA Rowe, M et al., 2010, USA, “Sleep in dementia caregivers and the effects of a nighttime monitoring system” [8] Surveillance package including bed occupancy sensor and room movement detector, emergency door alarm 53 persons with dementia (age 79 (8.4), 50 % female) and their informal caregivers (age 62 (11.9), 81 % female, 70 % white and 18 % black; 51 % spouses and 38 % adult daughters). Randomized controlled trial 12 months No nighttime monitoring system
USA Rowe, M et al., 2009, “Reducing dangerous nighttime events in persons with dementia using a nighttime monitoring system” [9] Surveillance package including bed occupancy sensor and room movement detector, emergency door alarm Same as Rowe et al., 2010 Randomized controlled trial 12 months No nighttime monitoring system
Norway Sivertsen and Løe, 2019, “Digitalt nattilsyn og søvnkartlegging: evaluering av digital nattilsyn på REKO Kastvollen” (Digital night surveillance and sleep mapping: evaluation of digital night surveillance at REKO Kastvollen) [10] Bed supervision system 20 care institution employees; detailed demographic information not stated Mixed methods, within-subjects design 9 months On-location visits
Norway Røhne et al., 2016, “Effekt av Trygghetspakker: erfaringar fra velferdsteknologiprosjektet i Lister regionen” (Effect of security packages: experiences from the welfare technology project in Lister region) [11] Surveillance package including bed, safety and door alarms 9 elderly persons living at home and their caregiving public employees; detailed demographic information not stated Mixed methods, within-subjects design 9 months On-location visits
  1. aHolmes et al. (2007) was found in PubMed Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, Cochrane (Trials), ASSIA, and Scopus; Rowe et al. (2010) in PubMed, Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, APA PsycInfo, Cochrane (Trials), Web of Science, ASSIA, and Scopus; Rowe et al. (2009) in PubMed, Academic Search Elite, Cochrane (Trials), Web of Science, ASSIA, and Scopus; and Siwertsen and Løe (2019) and Røhne et al. (2016) in Nordic grey literature databases
  2. bNumber of participants is presented; mean age (standard deviation in parentheses) and/or additional description presented where available