Skip to main content

Table 3 Factors associated with length of stay for hip fracture surgery patients in Japan, Korea, and Taiwana

From: Variations in hip fracture inpatient care in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan: an analysis of health administrative data

   Japan Korea Taiwan
   B SE p B SE p B SE p
Individual characteristics          
Sex Male (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
  Female −0.910 0.154 <0.001 1.249 0.159 <0.001 −0.126 0.048 0.008
Age 50–64 (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
  65–74 1.454 0.336 <0.001 0.128 0.280 0.648 0.311 0.083 <0.001
  75–84 2.301 0.307 <0.001 0.197 0.254 0.438 0.696 0.075 <0.001
  85 + 1.232 0.304 <0.001 −0.313 0.269 0.246 1.045 0.077 <0.001
Household income level Q1     (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Q2     −0.341 0.192 0.076 −0.211 0.206 0.304
Q3     −0.131 0.198 0.510 −0.362 0.206 0.079
Q4     0.273 0.192 0.155 −0.382 0.207 0.066
Charlson Comorbidity Index 0 (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
1 2.377 0.244 <0.001 0.323 0.157 0.039 0.500 0.058 <0.001
2 −0.836 0.153 <0.001 1.380 0.229 <0.001 0.649 0.071 <0.001
3 1.683 0.354 <0.001 3.176 0.383 <0.001 0.690 0.099 <0.001
4+ −0.231 0.299 0.440 2.571 0.545 <0.001 0.825 0.100 <0.001
Surgical intervention/ Procedure Internal fixation (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)  (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Hemiarthroplasty 0.251 0.135 0.063 −0.293 0.148 0.048 0.463 0.047 <0.001
Total hip arthroplasty 2.351 0.625 <0.001 −0.415 0.375 0.269 1.070 0.386 0.006
Hospital characteristics         
Location Urban −2.789 0.987 0.005 −3.408 1.736 0.050 −0.422 0.409 0.304
  Rural (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Ownership Public −3.265 0.771 <0.001 5.336 1.057 <0.001 −0.135 0.197 0.493
  Private/Other (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Teaching hospital Yes −6.319 1.512 <0.001 −3.043 0.948 0.001 0.128 0.280 0.647
No (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
No. of hosp. Beds 30–99 (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
100–399 −1.462 2.239 0.514 4.376 0.677 <0.001 1.976 0.620 0.002
400+ −8.584 2.316 <0.001 1.745 1.049 0.097 2.311 0.611 <0.001
No. of hip fracture patients Q1 (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Q2 −2.258 1.064 0.034 −1.684 0.852 0.048 −0.919 0.361 0.011
Q3 −4.930 1.077 <0.001 −0.536 0.895 0.550 −1.288 0.396 0.001
Q4 −12.407 1.087 <0.001 −0.949 0.969 0.328 −1.354 0.413 0.001
Regional characteristics
(for hospital location)
Disposable income (USD PPP, 2010) 0.255 0.271 0.347 −0.389 0.369 0.292 0.081 0.078 0.300
Herfindahl-Hirschman index 2.385 1.075 0.027 1.489 0.636 0.019 −1.092 0.394 0.006
% elderly living alone −0.216 0.157 0.168 0.748 0.292 0.011 0.007 0.083 0.929
No. of physicians per 1000 persons 2.576 1.374 0.061 −0.094 0.894 0.916 −0.922 0.543 0.091
No. of hospital beds per 1000 persons −0.124 0.197 0.528 −0.069 0.086 0.421 0.098 0.149 0.511
No. of home care facilities per 10,000 persons −0.145 0.111 0.192 −1.716 0.760 0.024 −0.402 0.867 0.643
% social welfare expenditure 0.289 0.101 0.004 0.232 0.126 0.067 −0.010 0.096 0.918
  1. aThe intraclass correlation coefficient in each analytic model is as follows: Japan (0.306), Korea (0.233), and Taiwan (0.142)