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Table 2 Categories related to the four steps of health information processing

From: “The system has to be health literate, too” - perspectives among healthcare professionals on health literacy in transcultural treatment settings

Categorya Processing stepb Subcategoryc
Challenges Access • Mismatch between provision and actual use of health services
Understand • Uncertainty about the causes of unsuccessful communication
Appraise • Insecurity in dealing with patients’ needs and expectations
• Patients’ distrust in healthcare professionals and the German health system
Apply • Patients’ non-compliance with medical appointments
Applied Solutions Access • Easily accessible services and outreach counselling
Understand • Recourse to professional interpreters and cultural mediators
• Recourse to lay interpreters (medical staff, relatives)
Appraise • Initiating unnecessary examinations to regain patients’ trust
Apply • Patience in communicating health information to patients
  1. aCategories deductively derived from the objective of the study
  2. bSubategories deductively derived from the guiding model (Sorensen et al) [3]
  3. cSubcategories inductively derived from the statements of the healthcare professionals