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Table 2 Pre-period1 healthcare utilization (baseline)

From: Evaluating the relationship between clinical and demographic characteristics of insulin-using people with diabetes and their health outcomes: a cluster analysis application

–. Total T1DM T2DM p
N % N % N %  
Total Number of People With Diabetes 100,650 100% 11,826 11.7% 88,824 88.3%
Healthcare Resource Utilization2
All-cause Utilization
  All-cause ER visits (n > 0, %) 18,930 18.8% 1452 12.3% 17,478 19.7% < 0.0001
  All-cause ER visits (mean, SD) 0.30 0.85 0.18 0.59 0.32 0.88 < 0.0001
  All-cause IP visits (n > 0, %) 14,048 14.0% 761 6.4% 13,287 15.0% < 0.0001
  All-cause IP visits (mean, SD) 0.21 0.64 0.09 0.40 0.23 0.67 < 0.0001
  All-cause IP days (mean, SD) 1.74 8.24 0.44 3.45 1.92 8.67 < 0.0001
  All-cause IP days for patients with ≥1 admit (mean, SD) 12.48 18.79 6.79 11.94 12.80 19.05 < 0.0001
  All-cause PCP visits (n > 0, %) 72,779 72.3% 6569 55.5% 66,210 74.5% < 0.0001
  All-cause PCP visits (mean, SD) 2.05 2.27 1.20 1.66 2.16 2.32 < 0.0001
  All-cause Endocrinologist visits (n > 0, %) 21,436 21.3% 5055 42.7% 16,381 18.4% < 0.0001
  All-cause Endocrinologist visits (mean, SD) 0.36 0.80 0.69 0.97 0.31 0.76 < 0.0001
  All-cause Cardiologist visits (n > 0, %) 17,954 17.8% 884 7.5% 17,070 19.2% < 0.0001
  All-cause Cardiologist visits (mean, SD) 0.30 0.83 0.11 0.50 0.32 0.87 < 0.0001
  No visit to PCP, Endocrinologist, or Cardiologist (n, %) 18,671 18.6% 2677 22.6% 15,994 18.0% < 0.0001
Diabetes-related Utilization3
  Diabetes-related ER visits (n > 0, %) 15,057 15.0% 1163 9.8% 13,894 15.6% < 0.0001
  Diabetes-related ER visits (mean, SD) 0.23 0.71 0.14 0.51 0.24 0.73 < 0.0001
  Diabetes-related IP visits (n > 0, %) 13,536 13.4% 750 6.3% 12,786 14.4% < 0.0001
  Diabetes-related IP visits (mean, SD) 0.20 0.60 0.08 0.39 0.21 0.62 < 0.0001
  Diabetes-related IP days (mean, SD) 1.59 7.58 0.40 3.15 1.74 7.98 < 0.0001
  Diabetes-related IP days for patients with ≥1 admit (mean, SD) 11.79 17.53 6.37 10.90 12.11 17.79 < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: ER = emergency room; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; IP = inpatient; n, N = number of people with diabetes; PCP = primary care physician; Q1 = first quartile; Q3 = third quartile; SD = standard deviation; T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus; T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus
  2. 1 Pre-period was defined as 6 months prior to index date
  3. 2 Statistical comparisons for average utilization were conducted using Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests
  4. 3 Diabetes–related determined by diagnosis in any diagnostic position on a medical claim